Tuesday, February 18, 2020

The Benifits of Quality Early Childhood Education by using curriculum Thesis Proposal

The Benifits of Quality Early Childhood Education by using curriculum and literature - Thesis Proposal Example Last four decades witnessed an increasing attention directed to the education of children who are under five (Barnett & Boocock, 1998). With ongoing changes in family structures and lifestyles, the number of children who are cared for by someone other than a parent has steadily increased. On the basis of information provided by Barnett and Boocock, estimates suggest that almost 65 percent of mothers with preschool children are in the labor force. In 1995, 59 percent of all preschool-aged children within the US were in preschool care and education programs on a regular basis, including 67 percent of three-year-olds and 77 percent of four-year-olds (Hofferth, Shauman, Henke, & West, 1998). According to the study carried out by West, Denton, and Germino-Hausken (1998), US Department of Education (Doe) found that 80 percent of all children beginning kindergarten in the fall of 1998 had been in child care on a regular basis, and about half continued to be in child care before or after sch ool. Suggesting that, currently, the vast majority of children within the US spend much of their day away from their parents, with most attending a center-based preschool program prior to kindergarten. As reported by Yarosz and Barnett (2001), center-based preschool programs in 1999, were frequently attended by preschoolers throughout the US, with program participation at 70% at age four and 45% at age three. As described by Yarosz and Barnett, center-based programs are mostly labeled as child care, preschool, day care, and nursery school and are operated under a number of different auspices, including churches, independent non-profit, for-profits, public schools, and Head Start. According to West, Hausken, and Collins (1993), regardless of how preschool programs are described and labeled, most parents perceive such programs as educational. Further explained by Yarosz and Barnett, augmentation in parental education as well as income is directly related to an increase in the rate of enrollment and participation of children in preschool programs. The finding holds true with greater government support for programs targeting children in low-income families (example Title XX or Child Care Works). Additionally, as reported by Yarosz and Barnett, findings suggests that parents are less likely to enroll children under three in center-based programs, as parents tend to view infant and toddler care as less likely to influence later educational outcomes. Moreover, the implementation of preschool programs in public schools has recently increased. According to information provided by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)

Monday, February 3, 2020

Cellular Phones and Cancer Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Cellular Phones and Cancer - Case Study Example Studies to understand the relation between rf and biological tissue have been conducted since the early 1940’s. The epidemiological studies performed were inconclusive due to the large number of uncontrolled variables such as the amount of power emitted by different models of phones used. Furthermore, studies performed on laboratory animals also resulted in insignificant increase in health problems. Though in February 2011, the New York Times reported a study conducted by the researchers at the National Institute of Health which found that cell phone usage caused 7 percent increase in brain activity. This increase in brain activity was confined to the area of the brain that was near the rf antenna of the cell phone. The results of this study indicated that the use of cell phones did have measurable effects on the brain activity. The role of the engineer when confronted with ongoing debate of the relation between cellular phones and cancer is vague. The engineer could move towards redesigning of cell phones that reduce rf emission. However, this action would not be scientifically proven as the adverse effect of cell phone usage resulting in cancer has yet to be noted. The ethical procedure to be followed by the engineer in this case is discussable. The Utilitarianism, moral theory, states that those actions are acceptable and good which serve to maximize human wellbeing. Utilitarianism stresses that maximizing the potential of the whole society is more important than maximizing the importance of an individual. The theory aims to balance the needs of the society with the needs of an individual, with an emphasis on the action that would provide maximum benefit to the people. In respect to engineering, the moral theory is particularly important in risk-benefit analysis and cost-benefit analysis. The invention and mass production of the cell phone can be regarded as one of the foremost inventions of the 20th