Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Offshore Oil Drilling - 2928 Words

Doesn’t everyone love swimming in the ocean and seeing all the pretty sea life? Some people do, and when people are offshore drilling they can cause a lot of problems if something goes wrong. The biggest concern by environmentalist is not a spill, but the pollution of the air and water, damage to the ocean bottom and debris that washes ashore from day-to-day operations of oil and gas rigs. Oil Drilling can lead to jobs being endangered, animals dying, and damaging the eco system. So many animals are dying because of the oil in the water. Proofread to- Government wildlife experts have found just in Alaska that the BP oil spill has threatened more than 400 species including 34,000 birds, 656 sea turtles and 12 dolphins, and this count was†¦show more content†¦Exposure to petroleum causes tissue damage in the eyes, mouth, skin and lungs of marine mammals. Because they are at the top of the food chain, many marine mammals will be exposed to the dangers of bioaccumulation of organic pollutants and metals. Expansion of offshore drilling activities would further threaten imperiled species like the manatee. Sea Turtles often nest on beaches. Collisions and noise disruptions are all potential threats to sea turtles. Hatchlings are also particularly susceptible to oiling because they spend much of their time near the water surface, where spilled oil or tar accumulates. (Boesch, DF and N.N. Rabalais (eds.) 2010.) Do to the oil spill U.S. wildlife experts are preparing to collect tens of thousands of endangered sea turtle eggs and move them hundreds of miles away in an unprecedented bid to protect them from the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Offshore oil drilling causes many changes to our climate change. It thickens the ocean and that makes it even harder for sea life animals to live in, and also for people to swim in. Also, when there is an oil spill fishermen cannot sail through it because of the possibility of the crude oil catching fire. The U.S. needs to look for ways to decrease petroleum consumption, not for ways to increase it. Offshore oil production involves environmental risks, most notably oil spills from oil tankers or pipelines transporting oil from the platform to onshore facilities, and from leaksShow MoreRelatedOffshore Oil Drilling2562 Words   |  11 PagesOffshore Oil Drilling 1 The Time Has Come For More Offshore Oil Drilling [pic] Figure 1 shows what a typical offshore oil rig looks like. Bryce D. Cates EPD 155 Sec 3 â€Å"Research Project† April 15, 2010 Offshore Oil Drilling 2 To: Paul Ross From: Bryce D. Cates Date: April 15, 2010 Subject: Cover Memo What do we do to obtain oil to meet the needs of Americans without havingRead MoreBenefits Of Offshore Oil Drilling1062 Words   |  5 PagesOffshore oil drilling is a big contribution to obtaining oil for the U.S., but it is also a big controversy to continue offshore drilling or to stop the drilling. most of the world’s energy comes from the use of oil, even though there are other resources to use oil is the most commonly used, But there is a shortage in oil especially in the U.S. so they suggest drilling for oil in the ocean to reach unexplored oil wells. There are benefits in offshore oil drilling such as jobs, domestic fuel, andRead MoreOffshore Oil Drilling On The Environment1474 Words   |  6 PagesOffshore Oil Drilling â€Å"If we do nothing, it doesn t matter how we feel. And that’s exactly what oil companies are banking on: out of sight, out of mind† (Hart, 24). Petroleum is a naturally occurring oil found under deep layers of rock (â€Å"oil drilling†). Oil drilling is when a pipe penetrates through these several layers of rock in order to reach the petroleum oil underneath. This oil can then be purified or turned into gasoline for energy use. Offshore oil drilling, like its’ name describes, isRead MoreThe Disadvantages Of Oil Drilling Offshore2181 Words   |  9 Pages The Disadvantages of Oil Drilling In Environmentally Sensitive Areas In The United States Oil drilling in environmentally sensitive areas in the United States had been an ongoing controversial problem for a very long time. There are so many opinions along with outlooks on the present topic. Many people are against oil drilling offshore because of the issues that it creates. However, there are many critics that agree with drilling in environmentally sensitive areas because they do not worry aboutRead MoreThe Current Regulations On Offshore Oil Drilling1456 Words   |  6 PagesThe current regulations on offshore oil drilling are too restrictive and do not effectively allow the use of our free market. For the free market to work as intended, it must be unregulated. Adam smith, who is widely considered the father of capitalism once stated â€Å"He, generally, indeed, neither intends to promote the public interests, nor knows how much he is promoting it. By directing that industry in such a manner as its produce maybe of greatest value, he intends only his own gain, andRead MoreOil Spills Caused By Offshore Drilling Essay1390 Words   |  6 PagesOils spills caused by offshore drilling in California (Santa Barbara) Introduction: This paper is about the effects of offshore drilling particularly it discusses â€Å"oil spills caused by offshore drilling in California†. These oil spills that are caused by offshore drilling affect the environment in the long run. Even some of these impacts on the environment by oil spills last for decades (Larry West). For example when an oil slick arrives at the beach from a huge oil spill then it sticks to eachRead MoreEnvironmental Consequences Of Offshore Oil Drilling1991 Words   |  8 PagesOffshore oil drilling is a controversial topic because when oil spills, it does extensive amounts of damage to the environment. Countries capable of mining oil in the ocean reap the economic benefits in addition to reducing their dependency on external oil. While it is uncontroversial that offshore drilling is a massive boon for those countries, the environmental consequences of a spill also affect the economic welfare of nearby residents. Oil contaminates animals through a pr ocess called biomagnificationRead MoreThe Debate Over Offshore Oil Drilling to Meed Americas Oil Needs1824 Words   |  8 Pagesof dependence on foreign oil, and one valid solution to this problem is offshore oil drilling and production. America’s economy is heavily based on petroleum, as though it is the nation’s blood; a necessity for survival. About 25% of oil produced in the U.S. comes from offshore rigs. Most of the U.S. coastline has been off limits for oil drilling since the early 1980s. Due to environmental concerns after an oil spill off the coast of California in 1969, an offshore drilling moratorium was imposed.Read MoreOffshore Oil Drilling and the Deepwater Horizon Spill of the Gulf of Mexico1591 Words   |  7 PagesOil is a very important fossil fuel that is used for various sources of energy. Oil supplies power to industries, fuel for transportation, heat for buildings, and provides raw material for plastics, paints, textiles, and other materials (hyb rid cars). To access this fossil fuel, oil drilling is used. Land-based oil drilling became less productive and as the global stipulation for energy increased, technology, law, and geology impacts stepped in and pushed the exploration of oil away from shores (CITE)Read MoreOffshore Drilling Is An Essential Part Of Today s Oil3024 Words   |  13 PagesOffshore drilling has become an essential part of today’s oil production and demand for energy. With the growth of population comes the increasing demand for oil. The oil industry today, is one of the most used providers of energy. Today in the 20th century the majority of the population in America has a car and cars needs gas to run. The oil reserves in the earth that are easily accessible via land are starting to run dry and are becoming harder to find. This is why we have begun to see more and

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

The Correlation Between Mental Illness And Crime Essay

In recent years, there has been a higher prevalence of articles in the media in relation to mental illness and crime. This is due to a higher focus of research in the past half-century by criminal psychologists into the relationship between mental illness and violence. A conclusion has then come of this research that people with mental health problems are at increased risk of violent offending. This is determined through classification and misclassification of mental illness and clinical aspects of violence. However, there are also seen to be additional factors and trends that impact a person with mental illness’s likelihood of becoming a violent offender. As mentioned by Howitt (2015), a mental illness can be defined as ‘a variety of psychological conditions in which there is a characteristic disabling and distressing impairment in some aspect of the psychological functioning of the individual.’ However, not all mental illnesses are found to be at risk of violent offending. Such illnesses as anxiety and depression are found to be less violent than mental health problems such as bipolar and schizophrenia, both of which will be included in the subset of mental health problems recognised as violent for the purpose of this essay. The relationship that has been identified between mental illness and crime has the ability to be misconceived through misclassification of violent mentally ill offenders and a variety of factors which have the ability to cloud the evidence of theShow MoreRelated Correlation Between Mental Illness and Violence and Crime Essay2291 Words   |  10 Pagesthe Correlation between Mental Illness and Viole nce and Crime Over the past few decades, many researches have strived to test and explain the correlation between violence and crime and mental illness. Moore and Hiday (2006) assert that up 22% of inmates has a mental illness, sometimes containing more mental illness patients than many psychiatric units. Due to these statistics it is evident how important it is to understand the causes of the correlations between crime and violence and mental disordersRead MoreMental Illness and Violent Crime1184 Words   |  5 PagesThe stereotype that goes hand in hand with mental illness that though seems to have improved over the years is still pervasive. Teplin, Abram McClelland (1994) state that people in general, believe that people with mental illness are more likely to commit violent crime with those without mental illness. In their study they seek to find evidence to that statement – to learn if having a mental illness increases the likeliness of violent crime and recidivism after release fro m prison. This authorRead MoreAntisocial Persoanlity Disorder1398 Words   |  6 Pagesapproximately 40-70% of children diagnosed with conduct disorder will develop ASPD as adults. If effective treatment and intervention options could be determined for individuals with ASPD, it would greatly decrease the amount of people who commit crimes and are incarcerated. It could also prevent some of these children from obtaining arrest records. Another study determined that 2.8% of the prison population in Dublin, Ireland exhibit psychotic symptoms (McInerney, C., Davoren, M., Flynn, G., MullinsRead MoreAre People With Mental Illness Dangerous?796 Words   |  4 PagesWe hear on the news about how a person has committed a homicide, or even a treacherous crime. The first thing that pops into ones head is something has to be wrong with that person, but really there isnt anything wrong with them at all. So, are mentally ill people also criminals? Studies suggest that there is no correlation between mental illness and crime. Why do we as people tend to think that mentally disorder people are so dangerous? According to a recent survey that was conducted. AboutRead MoreOut-Of-State Hypothesis937 Words   |  4 Pagesschool away from home are more likely to experience mental, physical, and social issues when compared to those of in-state students. This is likely attributed to a wide array of factors including regional/cultural differences, social pressures put on incoming students, and the impact of being a first year student with new responsibilities. The research conducted should show that students who are out-of-state experience some significant strain on mental, social, and physical health. Such results wouldRead MoreWhat Does Columbine, Sandy Hook, And Virginia Tech All Have?1377 Words   |  6 PagesNewtown: Every Day is a Painful Reminder What does Columbine, Sandy Hook, and Virginia Tech all have in common? These were all gruesome crimes committed within the last decade, by people under the age of 23. According to Smith, â€Å"These serious acts of violence are exceedingly rare, but the notoriety attracted by these events raise wide-range concerns† (287). A more pervasive problem is the increase of ‘relatively low-level’ aggression displayed every day in our schools (Smith 287). These behaviorsRead MoreThe Cost Of Not Caring For Those With Mental Illness1498 Words   |  6 PagesCaring for those with Mental Illness Mental health issues are on the rise, especially among the youth, 6 out of 10 young people do not receive mental health treatment for major depression. Currently, there are over 40 million Americans are dealing with a mental health issue and 56 percent of them are not receiving proper treatment. (mentalhealthAmerica). In addition, 33 percent of all homeless individuals have a mental illness and do not receive treatment. With the rise of mental health issues, theRead MoreThe Shutdown Of Public Mental Health1614 Words   |  7 PagesIn recent years, evidence and studies have proven that the shutdown of various mental health facilities across the nation has caused a dramatic increase in the number of incarcerations for people who suffer from mental illness. In 2006, the Bureau of Justice Statistics calculated that there were approximately 705,600 mentally ill adults incarcerated in state prisons, 78,800 mentally ill adults incarcerated in federal prisons, and 479,900 mentally ill adul ts incarcerated in local jails (â€Å"MentallyRead MoreMental Illness And Its Effects On The Media Essay1324 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Mental illness is often wrongly portrayed in the United States’ media creating stigmatization and misrepresentation. Mental illness â€Å"refers to a wide range of mental disorders that affect your mood, thinking and behavior† (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2015). Examples of disorders include anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Any â€Å"negative attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors are called stigma† (Wilson et al., 2016, p. 2) and stigma can contributeRead MoreEssay about Medicating Mental Illnesses1142 Words   |  5 Pages450 million people in the world currently are suffering from a mental illness, many untreated, the topic still remains taboo in modern society (Mental Health). For years, people with mental illnesses have been shut away or institutionalized, and despite cultural progression in many areas, mental illnesses are still shamed and rarely brought to light outside of the psychiatric community. The many diff erent forms in which mental illness can occur are incredibly prevalent in the world today, and there

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Carlos Santana Essay Example For Students

Carlos Santana Essay Carlos SantanaCarlos Santana naci en 20 de julio, 1947, en Autln de Navarro, Mexico. En 1955, la familia se movi de Autln de Navarro para Tijuana. Como un adolescente, Santana realizada en tira Tijuana forma un club. En los inicios de 1960s, Santana se movi otra vez con su familia para San Francisco, donde su padre esper encontrar trabajo. En San Francisco, despus de que varios aos gastaron hacer las veces de un lavaplatos y tocar en las calles, Santana resolvi convertirse en un msico profesional. En 1966, l forj a la Santana Blues Band con amigos y artistas callegeros David Brown y Gregg Rolie.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

School Leadership

Introduction In today’s era of heightened expectations, school leaders are in the hot seat to ensure effective and excellent educational outcomes. The multi-levelled pedagogic school leaders highly determine the mode of teaching students in schools and the effective application of the learning process.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on School Leadership specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Not only are they curriculum leaders but they are also educational futurists, disciplinarians, instructors, assessors, analysts, field experts and society builders (Davies 2005). They are involved in the core running of the school and act as a go-between in case of any arising conflicts between the parents, students, teachers, education participants such as unions and the society itself. This requires them to not only be sensitive when meeting student’s demands and needs but to also be critical thinkers so as to deliver valid judgments based on logic. School leadership is currently a complex concept with most leaders failing to balance their roles. It is evident that they are heavily inclined towards school management and accountability hence disregarding the effective mode of impacting knowledge to students to ensure quality teaching and learning. The outcome greatly reflects the quality of the school leaders’ pedagogy and their ability to give credible teaching instructions to improve learning in schools. Teachers need to have adequate knowledge of how to teach students and be able to implement and design the school curriculum. The following paper will therefore discuss the current change in pedagogical and instructional roles that seem to create imbalance in their competing roles and how the same can be reclaimed. School Leadership Previous studies have attempted to define the concepts, models and practises that characterise the effect of leadership in educational outcomes. Several conte mporary leadership theories have come up as a result. According to Davies and Ellison (2001), the distributional and transformational leadership theories are examples of such theories.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These two theories have been discussed by many scholars in an attempt to draw an understanding on the nature of school leadership and how it affects learning and teaching in schools. They also create a link between the leaders and the teachers themselves with an attempt of establishing the student outcomes that is derived from this relationship. Though the study on effective leadership based on this theories have not been concluded, it is evident that school leaders have a big role to play. Student performance is therefore attributed to the influence impacted through effective leadership. Successful school leaders give support and knowledgeable instructions to the teacher s, a practise that develops their inner intellectual powers. In addition, they also implement an effective organisation model that helps them strike a balance in their competitive roles. The studies on educational leadership draws a clear conclusion that school leaders requires to be actively involved in the institution’s learning and instructional programs. Principals need to balance the instructional and pedagogical roles together with their managerial roles to ensure exemplary student performance. The main goal in any learning institution is assuring parents and the society in general that their children are receiving quality education. Though managerial and compliance accountability roles play a big role in running a school, student performance should be made the core business, a concept that is ignored by many school leaders. Leadership Crisis In order to discuss how school leaders can become instructional and pedagogical leaders rather than just mere managers, it is imp ortant to look at the challenges facing school leadership. There has been increasing demands for effective schools and the achievement by students is entirely based on the key roles played by school leaders. Leadership challenges have played a big role in the transformation of quality teaching and learning (Duke 2010). The school leaders need to address these challenges as a step of regaining the lost glory. One of the main challenge relate to the leadership styles adopted by the leaders.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on School Leadership specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most school leaders lead through manipulation that tends to intimidate teachers. A research conducted indicates that 80% of school management is characterised by dictatorial leadership (Duke 2010). This can be due to various reasons such as nepotism or favouritism by the leader. Dictatorial leadership can also be applied in instances where the le ader is involved in unscrupulous dealings and is afraid of being exposed by a certain teacher. In such cases, the dictatorial management style instils fear in such teachers who steer away from the leader’s affairs. This challenge begets teachers who in turn fail to perform in their role of impacting knowledge to students. The other challenge is the limited capacity by school leaders to qualify as effective leaders. There has been an increase in unqualified selection of leaders due to the lenient selection process. The mode of screening, selection and admitting the leaders have been ill-defined and lacking in its application. As a result, most school leaders are easily admitted based on their academic background only and not their knowledge experiences or skill disposition required to making an effective leader. In addition, there are inadequate training programs for principals. The training is important to upgrade their competence and qualification to effectively run a school . Lack of dialogue between leaders and other participants in decision making is also a leadership crisis that has led to a decline in students’ performances. Such leaders fail to take criticism from teachers, students or even the society itself positively. This leads to such leaders applying the direct approach instead of a facilitative approach while making their decisions. This approach is bureaucratic in nature and tends to leave out important factors that can result to a disastrous decision. The other challenge worth noting is the lack of ownership in the mission and vision statements of the school. These statements play a big role in achieving the goals set by the school’s administration. In most schools, leaders have failed to expose the vision and mission to both teachers and students as an inspiration for them to work towards achieving the set goals and objectives. Most school teachers are up in hands to retain their position thus compromising the performance o f students.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead of engaging both students and the teachers, they are busy pleasing the school board in a bid to secure their managerial positions and disregarding problems faced by teachers to facilitate effective learning (Grace 1995). The quality of education has declined over the past few years. It is important to note that most of these challenges were not faced twenty ago hence they can be resolved. The challenges not only lead to the leader’s disorientation but also affect the teachers and the students as well. Instructional And Pedagogical Leadership Versus Administrative Leadership An oration by William Walker during a conference held by educational leaders in Australia gives a clear analysis of who qualifies as a pedagogical leader. Delivered by Viviane Robinson, the article seems to focus on educational leadership and their ability to give instructions rather than just being mere managers (Robinson 2007). The roles in this kind of leadership are differentiated from that of a school administrator in various ways. One distinctive role is the mode of discharging their administrative duties. While the administrators apply a rather strict approach, a pedagogical leader has clear set goals that involve all the participants. The latter is more involved in the implementation of the curriculum, monitoring process and evaluation of teachers and allocation of resources to make the program successful. They also encourage team work and transparency as opposed to their counterparts through delegation of powers to their juniors, a tactic that enhances learning growth. Recent definition of an instructional and pedagogical leader by Pont, Nusche and Moorman (2008) has shifted to include teaching and learning. Some of the scholars have further defined this kind of leadership as ‘learning leadership’. The community in such a learning environment uphold team work as the guiding principal. This entails constant meetings by staff members to discuss, reflect an d modify the learning process together as a team. To further avoid any future conflict that may arise, the members are armed with a problem-solving model to come up with a solution. The community creates a learning culture that leads to student’s success. Administrative leaders on the other hand are more attentive to the general running of the school as regards its finances, school projects and other factors affecting the general management of the school. They isolate themselves from the learning and teaching process leaving it entirely to the juniors to device their own curriculum. This leads to teacher’s laxity which in turn leads to a decline in students’ performances (Anderson and Cawsey 2008). Striking a Balance between the Administrative Role and the Pedagogical/Instructional Role For school leaders to be classified as effective leaders, they need to get deeply involved in the learning and teaching process while at the same time managing their administrati ve role. While this seems to be a challenging task, it is possible through application of various workable solutions. While teaching and learning has been termed as the core business in any learning institution, the school’s management needs to be kept running to ensure success in the said core business. Failure to effectively manage one can render the other one futile. Several scholars have proposed some workable models that can help strike a balance between these competing roles hence reclaiming the lost pedagogical and instructional roles of school leaders. This balancing model can be analysed through five strategic dimensions that play a big role in impacting quality knowledge to students. One of the dimensions is through promotion and active participation in teacher learning development. Crowther, Ferguson and Hann (2008) argue that a school leader needs to be actively involved in all activities pertaining to professional and developmental learning. This has proved to ha ve great impact on the student’s performance outcome. The school leader can be involved through formal or informal contexts. Formal context entails organising and participating in staff meetings and formal professional sessions. The informal context requires the school leader to not only initiate team building sessions that bring together all the members of the staff but to actively participate in them too. Team building session helps the members to identify problems that hinder the learning process and to come up with solutions to these problems through rigorous discussions. Scholars have suggested that such leaders who take this initiative begin to develop a focus in the learning and teaching process. They further get to learn their staff and how they operate. This helps the leaders to know the problems that the staff members are likely to face hence helping them with adequate support ranging from teaching resources to coming up with a valid timetable. Lastly, they learn to appreciate all the stages and time-line involved in the transformation process. The dimension not only involves itself in the learning process but also the administration role. The leader learns to involve the members of the staff in matters that affect the general running of the school hence helping to strike a balance between the two competing roles. The other dimension is through planning, evaluation and implementation of teaching curriculum. The school leaders need to be directly involved in the teaching process through regular attendance in classrooms. Recent study has indicated that giving a feedback to the teachers regarding their teaching tactics in class has played a key role in positive student outcomes (Mullen 2007). Such leaders play a vital role in coordinating an effective school curriculum to be used in all the levels. They also work together with staff members to plan, evaluate and implement their teaching curriculum. The curriculum also ensures a monitoring policy that closely follows the progress of student’s performance and evaluating the results in order to enhance future teaching programs. An effective teaching curriculum not only ensures exemplary performance but also help to create a good image of the school’s administration to the society. The image is an indication that the school head has the managerial abilities to run the school’s administration. Another dimension requires the leaders to come up with goals and expectations. This is by establishing an effective and workable vision and mission statement and to own it. The mission and vision statement encompass the goals and expectations set by both teachers and the students. It is therefore important to actively involve them in setting up these learning goals. Though it can be argued that this dimension plays a very minimal role in student outcome, it has significant learning impact to the students and staff by allowing them develop a specific focus. The school l eader is able to give priority to student achievement by ensuring that the goals are met and that the teaching curriculum correlates with the set school objectives. On the other hand, the goals and objectives also oversee the general running of the school by acting as the guiding principles. Strategic resourcing is also another dimension that the leader should actively be involved in. Strategic decisions concerning allocation of resources to aid in the learning and teaching process have an indirect impact in the student performance outcomes. The resources cover the school staffing and provision of teaching materials that facilitate the learning process. What is important is the ability of the leader to secure adequate resources that relates to the pedagogical set goals and objectives. The school leader on the other hand gains an additional skill to allocate resources required in the managerial role as well. The last dimension is to make certain that an orderly and supportive learnin g environment is maintained. School leaders should ensure a safe and caring haven for both its teaching staff and the students. The intervention mode by school heads to ensure such an environment helps to create a balance between the competing roles. Some of the interventions include setting up a standard discipline code, ensuring minimal conflicts that tends to disrupt the learning process and to protect the teaching staff from undue pressure from outside participants such as the parents or the school board. Implications Of The Dimensions The final question that requires to be answered is whether the dimensions play any key role in striking a balance in a leader’s competitive roles so as to ensure quality learning and teaching process. The dimensions seem to create a link between the leaders and other participants involved in the learning process. This creates an implication of team work that helps in solving problems. It further helps to strike a balance by ensuring key eva luation in student performances that effectively embeds positive experiences. The dimensions also include all the key areas in the school environment and serves as a focal point of leadership that ensures flexibility in affecting decisions made by the participants. Conclusion In order for school leaders to strike a balance between being both administrative and instructional/pedagogical leaders, they need first to focus on effective mode of leadership rather than the bureaucratic approach. The school head should then apply the dimensions in order to effectively get involved in the teaching and learning process on one hand and the managerial role on the other. This makes the heads partake the student’s performance as their core business hence meeting the ultimate requirement as an instructional or pedagogical leader. Reference List Anderson, M and Cawsey, C (2008) Learning for leadership: building a school of  Professional practice. Camberwell, Australian Council for Educatio nal Research Press. Crowther, F., Ferguson, M and Hann, L (2008) Developing Teacher Leaders: How  Teacher Leadership Enhances School Success. London, SAGE Publications. Davies, B (2005) The essentials of school leadership. London, Paul Chapman Publishing and Corwin Press. Davies, B and Ellison, L (2001) School leadership for the 21st century. A competency  and knowledge approach. New York, Routledge. Duke, D.L (2010) The Challenges of School District Leadership. New York, Routledge. Grace, R.G (1995) School leadership: beyond education management: an essay in  policy scholarship. Bristol, The Falmer Press. Mullen, C (2007) Curriculum leadership development: a guide for aspiring school  leaders. Sydney, John Wiley Sons Australia Ltd. Pont, B., Nusche, D and Moorman, H (2008) Improving school leadership: Policy and  practice. New Zealand, OECD Publishing. Robinson, V (2007) William Walker Oration: School Leadership and Student Outcomes  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Identifying What Works and Why. [Online] Available at: This essay on School Leadership was written and submitted by user F1sher to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The Purple Rose of Cairo essays

The Purple Rose of Cairo essays Many messages can be derived from Woody Allens 1984 success, Purple Rose of Cairo. It is easy to see that this is one of Allens more subdued films, and for good reason. He is truly keeping with the 1930s code of moral decency by using overly tame ideas and actions throughout the movie. An example is when Tom challenges Gil to a fight and gets beaten up because he expects Gil to play fair. This moral statement, although somewhat of a parody, shows us that it is possible to be brought into a totally different era (the 1930s) and genre (fantasy) and still have something to think about after having watched the movie. The ending of the film is one that has come as a surprise and disappointment to many viewers. Cecilia is left abandoned by both Tom and Gil. It seems like a disappointment, but it leaves a very strong statement. Allen is saying that the setting of his constant cliches is just a movie as well. He is taking us out of not just the romantic illusions he is deflating in the film within the film, but also this movies romantic illusion to us. Its his moral reminder to us that no matter what expectations we might have of characters on a screen that happy endings dont always work out in real life. Although it is disappointing, it needs to be said. "The Purple Rose of Cairo" is quite balanced with its messages. Allen deftly creates multiple themes and thoughts on film and its relation to reality without ever harming the story, but also makes the two work hand-in-hand. By having a reason for Tom to walk off the screen, he creates a fantastically leveled fable on life, and how film can truly affect it. Allen is also very responsible about it. If taken out of hand, film can cause people to blur reality with the fictitious, which is made notable through Cecilia's relationships with Tom and Gil. Through this conflict, Allen shows that people often ...

Friday, November 22, 2019

3 More Sentences with Dangling Modifiers

3 More Sentences with Dangling Modifiers 3 More Sentences with Dangling Modifiers 3 More Sentences with Dangling Modifiers By Mark Nichol When writers attach a phrase to the beginning of a sentence to provide additional information, they must take care that the subject of the sentence actually refers to the action or the thing described in that introductory text. Here are some sentences that illustrate the necessity of this vigilance. 1. â€Å"Originally scheduled for retirement (and certain death) in 2003, the hapless racehorse’s trainer now says that after Glorious Spring’s last race, the horse will be allowed to retire to a comfy pasture on a farm near her birthplace.† This sentence implies that the hapless racehorse’s trainer was originally scheduled for retirement and death – perhaps by execution, because of culpability for the horse’s losing streak? However, it is the horse, not the trainer, whose retirement (and subsequent visit to the slaughterhouse) was averted. The subject of the sentence must be unambiguous: â€Å"The racehorse was originally scheduled for retirement in 2003, but her trainer now says that after Glorious Spring’s last race, the horse will be allowed to retire to a comfy pasture on a farm near Glorious Spring’s birthplace.† (The horse is named again in this revision because the trainer’s gender is not clear thanks to his ambiguous Japanese name, which is not shown in this excerpt and â€Å"her birthplace† might be misconstrued as the trainer’s.) 2. â€Å"Raised in a Lutheran family, two of Paul’s brothers became ministers, and he chose to ‘minister through medicine.’† Two of Paul’s brothers were raised in a Lutheran family, but so were Paul and another brother, and the sentence implies that Lutherans raised only those who became ministers (and, perhaps that those two brothers were raised in another household); the influence of that upbringing on him is obscured. The sentence should be revised to explicitly place the emphasis on Paul (and I’ve clarified the source of the partial quote): â€Å"Paul and his brothers were raised in a Lutheran family, and two of them became ministers, while he chose, as he put it, to ‘minister through medicine.’† 3. â€Å"Normally a four-day voyage, the crew only brought four days’ worth of rations, not anticipating a strong headwind to slow the schooner.† This sentence names the crew as a four-day voyage. To eliminate this unfortunate association, describe the voyage’s customary duration with a simple declarative syntax, then attach the rest of the information: â€Å"The voyage normally took four days, and the crew, not anticipating a strong headwind that slowed the schooner, brought only four days’ worth of rations.† (Note, too, how the revision moves and parenthesizes the incidental information about the obstructive headwind.) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:85 Synonyms for â€Å"Help†What is Dative Case?10 Humorous, Derisive, or Slang Synonyms for â€Å"Leader† or â€Å"Official†

Thursday, November 21, 2019

What Were The Causes Of World War One Could The War Have Been Research Paper

What Were The Causes Of World War One Could The War Have Been Prevented Who Was At Fault For The Outbreak Of War - Research Paper Example However, the European continent had experienced less destructive wars such as the Crimean war, the short wars in German as well as the wars that resulted into Turkey withdrawing from the continent. 2The great powers of Europe had avoided any war that emerged for very long time and the outbreak of the World War I was viewed as inevitable. The First World War engaged many nations from Europe including others like the North Americans, The Near East, and Asia. 3Approximately ten million people died as a result of the war in which over sixty five million men fought in the war. It is also estimated that out of the sixty five million men who participated in the war, one out of every eight people were killed by the concomitant disease. 4The aftermath of the First World War resulted into the deaths of more than twice the number of deaths caused by the previous wars. More than fifteen million people were also injured as a result of the war and another eight million soldiers were taken as POWs. 5The war was therefore very destructive and if any participant nation of the world would have known the consequences, they could have not participated in the war but instead could have prevented its occurrence. The immediate cause of the First World War may be stated to be the failure of diplomacy as a result of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. However, there are certain underlining issues that resulted into the outbreak of the war. 6Few leaders in Europe were able to correctly determine the causes of the war in 1914 and therefore its avoidance was difficult. 7Most Neorealists believe that it was a conflict that was beyond the control of the people who participated in it and the people never wanted nor expected it. This is the reason why the events that preceded the five weeks of crisis and the crisis itself could not prevent the war. Generally the war was inevitable due to certain foundation issues and therefore could have not been avoided. Structuralism

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Research Paper

The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) - Research Paper Example FARC has waged war against the Colombian government for roughly four decades. At the start of the insurgency, the group had merely more or less 350 soldiers. Majority of these soldiers were the disgruntled and peasants, and they did not have the necessary advanced weaponry (Corrales & Romero 98-99). From this humble beginning, the group’s military capability has risen to roughly 18,000 combatants (Martin 214). Besides its assaults on Colombian economic, political, and military institutions, FARC has been deeply engaged in murder, extortion, kidnapping for ransom, drug trafficking, and other crimes (Hough 386). In fact, the organization becomes more popular for its deep involvement in illegal narcotics businesses than for its rebellious operations. However, its leaders remain devoted to its social revolutionary objectives and use terrorist methods to terrorize or pressure its political enemies. Even though FARC has been successful in taking over massive portions of Colombian territory, the group has been unsuccessful until now to overpower the Colombian armed forces in open combat (Lee 29). This paper discusses current efforts to combat FARC and speculates as to why they are still successfully active. The United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia, headed by Carlo Castano, is a conservative paramilitary organization created in 1984 to fight guerilla soldiers or insurgent groups in Colombia, like FARC. Its exercise of terrorism to abolish the support base of these guerilla militias has made it a dominant and feared army in Colombia (Martin 214). The country’s government since the 1960s has been combatting a number of radical terrorist organizations; the two biggest are the National Liberation Army (ELN) and the FARC (Hough 381). The operations and activities of FARC, alongside the narcotics industry, have given Colombia a quite infamous and perilous reputation. The Colombian army  The Colombian army raided a campsite owned by the FARC on the 26th of March 2012, taking the lives of 36 members of the organization and arresting three more.  

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Just Business Report Essay Example for Free

Just Business Report Essay Reading the book â€Å"Just Business† by Alexander Hill, it was very interesting to go through the topic of Christian ethics for business. Looking at different scenarios that managers have to confront and it shows how nerve-wracking, heart wrenching and also guilt producing that it could be. The definition of ethics is the study of â€Å"should† and of doing the â€Å"right thing.† The three main characteristics that were presented and emphasized in the Bible: God is holy. God is just. God is love. Hill also talked about integrity, fairness and compassion that mirror holiness, justice and love. I loved how Hill supports his points by having Bible verses. For example he writes the â€Å"salt and light† of the world (Matthew 5:13-16) is the third force for good. I agree with many of the points Hill says such as â€Å"we cannot serve two masters at the same time† (Matthew 6:24) and it specifies that we cannot serve both God and money. They were also talking about justice procedural rights that focus on fair processes in decision-making. Substantive rights are what procedural rights seek to protect. Merit links the concepts of cause and effect. Contractual justice is limited to three duties; we must not violate a negative injunction by causing harm to others, we must respect procedural justice and we must fulfill our contractual promises (Hill 46). Love is a universal word and many would consider it to be â€Å"the centerpiece of Christian ethics† (Hill 53). Love includes empathy, mercy and self-sacrifice. Empathizing with others would include by celebrating with their triumphs and shouldering their pain. Mercy is quite hard to do because it takes action on their behalf and takes initiative in forgiving. In my experience, there are times when I do have trouble forgiving people, yet God gave me the strength to forgive the person. This will probably come up more often while taking care of business. He also shows visuals such as the tables and drawings that make it easier to get the gist of what he was talking about. Part Two – False Exits This addresses â€Å"Dual Morality†, â€Å"Law†, and â€Å"Agency† which they are known as false exits â€Å"because they deposit ultimate ethical authority in human instrumentalities – business culture, government and corporate government – rather than in God’s character† (Hill 67). Dual morality â€Å"rejects the notion that universal principles of right and wrong exist† (Hill 69). It also helps me have a visual when he shows examples of CEOs and what kind of decisions they have to make and what would be the ethical thing to do. Law is another false exits, when one presumes that if an action is legal, it is still morally acceptable as well. There are times when there are many people just follow the law and assume that the law is right and the ethical way. There are flaws in the system and Hill shows a diagram in page 98, figure 6.1 illustrates the tension. Acts that are both ethical and legal Ethics - Acts that are unethical but legal Law - Acts that are both illegal and unethical Agency is the third false exit that talks about the problems that arises when the values of the employee diverge from those of the employer. It was intriguing to learn about the legalistic purist, the accommodating purist. These few chapters opened my eyes to see what kind of false exits that people use in the business world. Now I am aware of what people could use as false exits. Part Three – Topics Honesty and Deception is more common in the business environment but it is quite difficult concepts to apply. Honesty â€Å"builds trust, establishes community and protects the dignity of the audience† (Hill 125), which allows partners to rely on each other and fosters community and respects each one’s dignity. He also talks about deception and how justice condemns deception and it could lead to disaster and consequences. No right to hear the truth, exaggeration, and ambiguity are more deceptions that people use in the business environment. The other topics that were discussed were: Concealment and disclosure; Employer-Employee Relations; Employee Rights; Discrimination and Affirmative Action; the Environment and Property. The topic that stood out to me was the Environment because I have learned about different ethical views such as the anthropocentric view and the biocentric view 1 and 2. Hill also explains what the Role of Business is that even â€Å"scripture makes it clear that our task is to responsibly steward God’s creation in the hear and now† (228) and there are times that one would have to make difficult decisions. These topics have given me a new perspective towards business. Overall, â€Å"Just Business,† by Alexander Hill, was an outstanding book to read especially when one is planning to go into the field of business. It was interesting to see how business runs with the combination of Christian ethics. I would highly recommend for other students to read this especially if they are looking into business. It was a great opportunity to read what it is like to be ethical in the business world, in comparison, to what it is like to be not ethical in the business world. References Hill, Alexander (2008). Just Business: Christian Ethics for the Marketplace. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Essays --

Laser treatment is being employed for several applications including wound healing, bone repair, pain-relief, etc. The basic principle of laser therapy relies on the absorption of photonic energy by molecular photoacceptors (chromophores), leading to a photochemical reaction. This photochemical reaction results in the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and heat, which are known to play a crucial role in laser-induced damage. This study explores the role of specific heat in affecting laser-induced damage. By using the formula, H = msÃŽ ¸ (H being Heat, M being Mass; S being Specific heat, and ÃŽ ¸ being change in temperature), it was speculated that a change in specific heat would affect rise in temperature and hence cytotoxicity induced by the laser. Therefore, the specific heat of different solutions was measured using a calorimeter-like setup. Once the specific heat of different solutions was determined, cells (HaCaT, Human Skin Epithelial Cells and NOKSI, Normal Oral Keratinocytes) were treated with solutions of varying specific heat capacities and assessed in laser damage. It was observed that in lowering the specific heat by using various cell culture solutions, there is a sharp increase in temperature at lower laser doses, leading to increased damage to cells. Further, a robotic arm is being assembled to characterize the heat dispersion during clinical therapy, with the aim of mimicking manual operator hand motions and helping simulate clinical therapy in further lab experiments. INTRODUCTION There are three primary phases of wound healing—inflammation, tissue formation, and tissue regeneration. It is a dynamic, interactive process involving soluble mediators, blood cells, extracellular matrix, and parenchymal cel... ...of glycerol is indeed cytotoxic. When treating the cells with a 1.7W laser, the 10% FBS solution proved to be the most effective in preserving cell viability, due to its high specific heat capacity. Future goals of this experiment will strive to determine whether the laser-induced killing is through heat, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, or some other factor. In Aim 2, we were able to capture the precise clinical operator movements in multiple dimensions using the precision 6-axis sensor. We recently completed construction of our robotic arm and are in the process of programming using the clinical data captured with the sensor. This robotic arm concept is expected to greatly stabilize the laser motions, and will certainly be a beneficial and revolutionary application in not only lab experiments, but also experiments dealing with animals, such as mice.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Police service Essay

What do you think the key role of the police service is and what skills do you bring to the service to execute that role? The key role of the police is to prevent criminal activity to occur in society. This is demonstrated through the use of detecting criminal behaviour, investigating crime and stopping individuals or groups that create a threat to others. Police enforce the law to provide safety and a sense of security. The key role of the police service is to maintain social order through the guidelines of legislations and government policies to enable a safe environment for society to live in. I think Police service requires officers to engage in other communities, treating them equally as any other. This is because it is essential for officers to develop a diverse sense of understanding for one’s culture and religion. Police are given powers to use discretion whilst performing their duties, this is a very important tool that allows officers to make decisions based on their own choice or knowledge and knowing another’s religion can help to use the tool of discretion effectively. An example can be seen through the religion Sikh, where some of the Sikh religious man may wear a small sword on them. This sword is not used for harm but it is just a religious belief for Sikhs. If police do not have any knowledge of the religion, then it is difficult for them to use discretion in a positive manner. One major skill that I would bring to the service is to develop a good understanding of other cultures to assist those who are struggling in the community. Australia is a very multicultural society the different in backgrounds in the police force allows for better communication with society because they know you have a better understanding of who they are which allows you to help them beyond just being a police officer. A key role of the police is to protect society by the use of police powers under the law enforcement powers and responsibilities act 2002 such as arrest. This police power allows the officer to arrest a person either based on suspicion or if one commits an offence. This is done through police investigation whereby police may patrol the streets via walking, driving, or riding a bicycle. Police investigate crimes such as break and enter, property theft, domestic violence, and malicious damage. By investigating and solving criminal offences in the community, the police are giving protection to others and  maintaining social order. The skill that would be used effectively to execute this role is to talk to the offender about the situation and using good negotiation skills, treating him with respect or use reasonable amount of force if necessary depending on the situation. Good negotiation skills may be extremely effective when resolving disputes between neighbours or family members. This skill is important in carrying out policing duties because if society is treated with respect, you will also be treated with respect. If officers do not have the power to arrest, it would be difficult for police to keep society safe from criminals and offenders as they may re-offend. A key role of the police is to be honest, respectful and a trustworthy person. This is important because you may need to work with officers you have never met before. For them to trust you it may be important to share information. At all times truth must be told, as police matters may result in court hearings, and it is only the truth that can distinguish between whether a person is innocent or guilty. In response to this I would behave with discipline and respect those who work around me, if someone is wrong show them the right path to follow. This is important because you are not only looked upon by your colleagues but also others as you may be a role model for others in society. An important key role for the police service is to enforce the law by following and keeping upto date with legislations. Legislations are used to assist those in society. Legislations allow us to understand the law and for the police service to fulfil the required duty as a police officer through following the procedures of acts and amendments.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

The Battle of Vicksburg

The object of contention in the Vicksburg campaign was the Mississippi River, which bore the same relation to the seceding Southern States that the Hudson bore to the rebellious Thirteen Colonies in the Revolutionary War; it divided them into two parts (Ballard(1) 3-5). If the Union forces could get control of this river they would split the Confederacy in two, and stop the passage of supplies and men to the Confederate armies in the east from Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas (Ballard(1) 72). This was a purely military consideration, but there was also a political and commercial consideration.The Mississippi was the great highway of trade between the Northwestern States and the outside world; so long as any part of it was controlled by Confederate batteries the highway was closed (Ballard(1) 8). The Confederates in the first year of the war controlled the middle portion of the river by the forts at Columbus, New Madrid and Island No. 10, Fort Pillow and Fort Randolph (Ballard(1) 18). C olumbus was evacuated a short while after the fall of Forts Henry and Donelson (Ballard(1) 27). General Pope, with the help of Foote's fleet, captured New Madrid and Island No. 10, in April, 1862.The victory at Shiloh (April 6 and 7, 1862) advanced the Union line southward to the Memphis and Charleston Railway, Fort Pillow was abandoned by the Confederates on the 4th of June, and Fort Randolph the next day (Ballard(1) 42-43). At this time the Federals and the Confederates both had fleets on the river. Foote's fleet, now commanded by Commodore Davis, Foote being still disabled by the wound he received at Donelson, pushed on down the river, as one Confederate post after another was evacuated or taken. On May 10, 1862, the Confederate flotilla had attacked the Union fleet at Fort Pillow and been defeated (Shea and Winschel 10).On June 7 the Union squadron attacked the Confederate fleet at Memphis, destroying three of its vessels, damaging others, and driving the fleet southward. The Ma yor of Memphis immediately surrendered the town to Davis. The river was now open southward as far as Vicksburg (Shea and Winschel 11-12). On the 25th of April, 1862, Farragut's fleet had arrived at New Orleans and taken possession of that city; in May the fleet moved up the river and took Baton Rouge and Natchez, and, with the assistance of a small detachment of land troops, tried to take Vicksburg, but failed (Shea and Winschel 35-37).The Confederate authorities, now appreciating the importance and the peril of Vicksburg, had it strongly garrisoned and provided with batteries to command the river. By direction of the authorities at Washington, Farragut, with his fleet of ships and gunboats, and General Williams, with a small force of artillery and infantry, made another unsuccessful effort against Vicksburg, toward the end of June, 1862 (Ballard(2) 16-17).Vicksburg was now the only point of the river held by the Confederates, but in August General Breckinridge garrisoned Port Hudso n, two hundred miles below Vicksburg, and began setting up heavy batteries there to command the river. Thenceforward this point, also, was occupied by the Confederates until after the fall of Vicksburg. The Confederates also regained control of the river as far northward as Helena, Arkansas. (Ballard (2) 45-47). Such was the situation along the Mississippi in September, 1862.Halleck, having captured Corinth and dispersed his army, had gone to Washington to assume the office of Generalin-Chief, leaving Grant â€Å"in command of all troops in the vicinity of Memphis and Corinth and as far back as Columbus, Ky† (Ropes 35). Buell and Bragg were in their race for Kentucky, and Grant's forces had been drawn upon to reinforce Buell's; Grant now had only about 42,000 men. With these he was required by Halleck to guard the railway from Memphis to Decatur, two hundred miles, and keep open communication with Buell. This constrained him to a passive defensive attitude for the time (Balla rd (2) 186-87).The Confederate troops in Mississippi composed two independent commands, each about 16,000 strong. One force under Van Dorn; the other under Sterling Price. On the 2nd of September Price received word from Bragg that Rosecrans, whose â€Å"Army of the Mississippi† formed the left of Grant's line, was about to march to Tennessee in order to join Buell. Bragg asked Price to prevent this movement. Accordingly, Price asked Van Dorn to join forces with him to attack Rosecrans. Van Dorn agreed to join him, but replied that he should not be able to assemble his scattered forces before the 12th of the month.Fearing that this would not be early enough to catch Rosecrans, Price moved out without waiting for Van Dorn. On the 14th he occupied Iuka. About the 18th Price and Van Dorn arranged to join their forces at Rienzi for an advance against Corinth (Shea and Hess 303-113). Meantime Grant had been watching the movements of Price and Van Dorn, and had resolved to attack P rice at Iuka, before he and Van Dorn could unite their forces. To this end he assembled Rosecrans's command and Ord's division at Corinth, and started them toward Iuka.Rosecrans took the roads by way of Rienzi and Jacinto, and was to approach Iuka from the direction of the south. Ord marched by way of the railway, and was to attack at the same time from the north and west. The combined attack was to drive Price against the Tennessee River. As usually happens with marches of concentration, this one miscarried. The upshot was, Rosecrans approached by one road only from the south, and attacked the Confederates without Ord. Darkness ended the combat, and during the night Price slipped out by the other road [the Fulton road] to the south (Ballard (1) 75-77) .Rosecrans and Ord returned to Corinth. Van Dorn and Price met at Ripley on the 28th of September, and Van Dorn took command of their combined force by virtue of his rank. Van Dorn marched the united force by way of Pocahontas and Che walla, and formed line of battle to the northwest of Rosecrans's position, near intrenchments at Corinth, on the morning of October the 3rd. The Confederates attacked, and by sunset had driven the Federals into the redoubts at the edge of the town. The next morning Van Dorn renewed the assault.The combat was ferocious; but by noon it was over, and the Confederates were retreating from the field. Rosecrans made no pursuit until the next day. Van Dorn made good his retreat to Holly Springs. Rosecrans and Hurlbut pursued to Ripley and were then recalled by Grant to Corinth and Bolivar. General Pemberton was now sent to Mississippi to take command of all the Confederate forces in the State; Rosecrans was called from Grant's army to relieve Buell of the command of the Army of the Ohio. Grant was promised by Halleck a â€Å"large body of new levies,† and he purposed taking the offensive without delay (Reed 88).Meantime McClernand was in Washington working out a secret scheme with t he President and the Secretary of War, by which he was to raise a volunteer army in Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa, and lead it down the Mississippi to capture Vicksburg. No intimation of this project was given to General Grant, but Halleck, of course, was informed of it. The result was that when Grant first wrote to Halleck (October 26) asking leave to move against Vicksburg, he received no reply to his letter. Then followed several contradictory and vague dispatches from Halleck, which kept Grant for some time guessing what he was expected to do.At last, however, it was arranged that Grant should move with the main army from Grand Junction to Holly Springs, and be joined by Sherman with the troops from Memphis, on the Tallahatchie River. A force from Helena was to move across the Mississippi and threaten the Confederate rear at Grenada (Reed 92-95). At this time Van Dorn commanded the Confederate forces about Holly Springs-some 24,000 men, formed in two divisions, under Price and Lov ell. Vicksburg was garrisoned by 6,000 Confederates, and Port Hudson by 5,500. Pemberton had his headquarters at Jackson.By the 5th of November Grant had reached Oxford with the main body, and Sherman was at College Hill, a few miles northwest of that place. The force from Helena had carried out its part of the plan and had returned to Helena. Van Dorn had fallen back, before Grant's advance, to Grenada. Up to this time Grant had advanced with no very definite plan, except to attack the enemy if he overtook him. But Van Dorn, by Pemberton's order, had kept falling back. As Grant's line of communication was now more than 200 miles long-a single-track railway back to Columbus, Kentucky,-Grant established a secondary base at Holly Springs.After considerable correspondence with Halleck, and the discussion of several plans with Sherman for the capture of Vicksburg, it was finally arranged, with Halleck's approval, that Sherman should return to Memphis with one division. There he was to p ick up all the newly arrived troops, and, with the troops under Steele from Helena, he was to organize an expedition to move by transports, under escort of Porter's fleet of gunboats, to Vicksburg, while Grant marched his army along the left bank of the Yazoo against the same objective. Sherman was back at Memphis by the 12th of December, and set out for Vicksburg on the 20th (Reed 104-106).But events occurred which prevented Grant from carrying out his part of the plan. As a consequence of raids Grant was forced to place his army on short rations, fall back to the Memphis and Charleston Railway, and open communications with Memphis. No supplies were to be had in the country; it had been stripped. Sherman, in the meanwhile, had gone down the Mississippi. He had a force of 32,000 men and sixty guns, which he organized into four divisions. His division commanders were M. L. Smith, A. J. Smith, G. W. Morgan, and Fred Steele.The expedition reached Miliken's Bend, twenty-five miles above Vicksburg, before daylight on Christmas day (Simon and Grant 98-100). Vicksburg stood 250 feet above the waters of the Mississippi, and from there a line of cliffs, known as Chickasaw Bluffs, ran northward twelve miles, to Haynes's Bluff on the Yazoo River. The space between the base of the bluffs and the rivers was a wooded swamp cut up by bayous and creeks (Ropes 71). Pemberton had learned of Sherman's expedition, and had hurried reinforcements to Vicksburg; so that 12,000 Confederates were now intrenched upon the bluffs, awaiting Sherman's attack.This expedition was also to have received the cooperation of an expedition under Banks from New Orleans. Banks, however, got no farther than Baton Rouge Sherman landed his troops, on the 26th of December, at Johnson's plantation, and his columns, on the 27th and 28th, meandered across the swamps and bayous toward the foot of the bluffs. Only one of the columns had a bridgetrain. On the 29th Sherman assaulted the Confederate position, bu t was unable to carry it. He remained in position two or three days, vainly trying to find some way by which to dislodge the Confederates.On the 2nd of January he reembarked his men, and, without opposition, returned to the mouth of the Yazoo. Here he was met by McClernand, with an order assigning that general to command the expedition. The order was dated about the 17th of December (Ropes 74-76). Thus ended in failure the project of a combined movement against Vicksburg by land and water. Works Cited Ballard, Michael B. (1) Vicksburg: The Campaign That Opened the Mississippi. University of North Carolina Press, 2004. Ballard, Michael B. (2) Civil War Mississippi: A Guide. University Press of Mississippi, 2000. Shea, William L. and Hess, Earl J.Pea Ridge: Civil War Campaign in the West. University of North Carolina Press, 1992. Shea, William L. and Winschel, Terrence J. Vicksburg Is the Key: The Struggle for the Mississippi River. University of Nebraska Press, 2003. Simon, John Y. a nd Grant, Ulysses S. The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant: April 1 – July 6, 1863 Vol. 8. Southern Illinois University Press, 1979. Reed, Samuel R. The Vicksburg Campaign, and the Battles about Chattanooga under the Command of General U. S. Grant in 1862-63; a Historical Review. Cincinnati: R. Clarke, 1882. Ropes, John Codman. The Army in the Civil War. Charles Scribner's Sons, 1881.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Learning to Become an Ecologist - Secrets of Ecologists

Learning to Become an Ecologist - Secrets of Ecologists How To Become An Ecologist While the profession of ecologist is not very old, it already has a rich history, interesting peculiarities, and millions of advocates, eager to become ecologists as they grow up. The main object of the ecologist is finding and studying the relations between the living organisms, including human beings. It may seem as not really interesting task from the first glance, but it is much more gripping as it may seem. Unveiling the Secrets of Ecologist Ecologists Duty The actual work, performed by ecologists can be not really influential separately rescued animal, studied soil, organized striker against a harmful manufacture. Apparently, that is not as much important as rescuing people from fire or saving peoples lives in hospital. However, all these minor actions help us understand how the nature works and let people interact with much less harm and inconveniences for the environment. Some of the deeds simply slowly kill the planet and the ecologists duty is to stop it and cure the Earth as much as possible. One of the biggest influences here is evolution as it changes the natures behavior and ignoring it means enormous problems over the long term. Ecologists present us knowledge and devices to react properly as well as protect both us and nature. Ecologists Working Place If you ask whats an ecologist main task, you will hear that it is ecosystem study. Most of the ecologists work in the state organizations within particular resource agencies. Also, there is a special branch in this sphere natural resource managers. These are the people who deal with subsoil resources and their working places can also be some commercial building companies, not only state ones. Apart from that, it is not a surprise to meet an educated ecologist in the university who teaches students to save the world in a similar way. Ecologists Duties As the environmental problems are growing each year, peoples awareness about nowadays and incoming issues is also increasing. This means that ecologists work quite well to inform the society about possible outcomes of the life people lead now. Moreover, huge companies now also own their private ecologists (usually with different names, including resource manager, lobbyist, environmental consultant, etc.) to avoid possible obstacles on this level. Ecologists Job Description Despite the main objective of finding relations between members of the ecosystem, ecologists still have plenty job tasks that vary depending on the working place. Among the most common are: conduct researches on different related topics; conduct statistical analysis of the certain question; calculate influential factors of a sphere; express the final opinion in combined publications; establish beneficial relations between company and partners on the basis of the studies. These are only some of the objectives that an expert ecologist should be able to perform. Ecologists Study Requirements The study of ecology differs from the other branches of science. Despite theoretical notions, practical experience is also of great importance. Early working experience, including volunteering, may be beneficial and helpful for the future jobs.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Climate Change vs. Global Warming

Climate Change vs. Global Warming Global warming and climate change are sciences odd couple - you hardly hear one mentioned without the other. But much like the confusion that surrounds climate science, this pair is often misunderstood and misused. Lets take a look at what each of these two terms really means, and how (even though theyre often used as synonyms) theyre in fact two very different events. The incorrect interpretation of climate change: A change (usually an increase) in our planets air temperatures. Climate Change Is Non-specific The true definition of climate change is just as it sounds, a change in long-term weather trends - be that rising temperatures, cooling temperatures, changes in precipitation, or what have you. By itself, the phrase carries no presumptions about how the climate is changing, only that a change is occurring. Whats more, these changes could be the result of natural external forces (like an increase or decrease in solar sunspot or Milankovitch Cycles); natural internal processes (like volcanic eruptions or changes in ocean circulations); or human-caused or anthropogenic effects (like the burning of fossil fuels). Again, the phrase climate change doesnt specify the reason for the change. The incorrect interpretation of global warming: Warming due to a human-induced increase in greenhouse gas emissions (like carbon dioxiode). Global Warming Is One Type of Climate Change Global warming describes an increase in Earths average temperature over time. It doesnt mean that temperatures will rise by the same amount everywhere. Neither does it mean that everywhere in the world will get warmer (some locations may not). It simply means that when you consider the Earth as a whole, its average temperature is increasing. This increase could be due to natural or unnatural forces such as an increase in greenhouse gases, particularly from the burning of fossil fuels. Accelerated warming can be measured in Earths atmosphere and oceans. Evidence for global warming can be seen in retreating ice caps, dry lakes, increased habitat reduction for animals (think of the now-infamous polar bear on a lone iceberg), global temperature rises, shifts in weather, coral bleaching, sea-level rise and more. Why People Mix Them Up If climate change and global warming are two very different things, why do we use them interchangeably? Well, when we talk about climate change were usually referring to global warming because our planet is currently experiencing climate change in the form of rising temperatures. And as we know from monikers like FLOTUS and Kimye, the media loves blending words together. Its easier to use climate change and global warming as synonyms (even if it is scientifically incorrect!) than it is to say both. Perhaps climate change and global warming will get its own portmanteau in the near future? How does clowarming sound? The Correct Verbiage If you want to be scientifically correct when talking climate topics, you should say that Earths climate is changing in the form of global warming. According to scientists, it is highly likely that both are being driven by unnatural, human-caused reasons.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

HISTORY OF AMERICAN CAPITALISM Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

HISTORY OF AMERICAN CAPITALISM - Assignment Example Because of the American culture; our teaching methods and the fact, the winner holds the reins few if any one realizes that the South is still under reconstruction; is still at war and still at the mercy of the North. A very famous Southerner before he died said, â€Å"Surrender means the history of this heroic struggle will be written by the enemy that our youths will be taught by Northern School teachers learn from Northern school books THEIR version of the war†. 3. What was the background to the creation of the 2nd Bank of the United States? What was the main responsibility of the bank? What role did Nicolas Biddle play? What were his main policies? What was Andrew Jackson’s policy concerning the bank? In the early 1800s, the United States government did not print paper money but instead minted gold and silver coins called specie. The value of these coins was determined by the value of the metal in the coins themselves. People wanted a safe place to keep their savings of gold and silver coins, so they stored them in banks, which had strong vaults and other measures of security. One area of particular concern among bankers, businessmen, and government leaders was banking on the frontier. Frontier land was cheap, and speculators would buy large tracts expecting the price to go up as settlers entered the region. In order to finance their investments, speculators borrowed as much as they could from â€Å"wildcat† bank that sprang up to cater to this demand (Mansel and Kerr, 17-26). Jackson’s presidential term ended in 1836. Popular with the people to the end, his immediate economic legacy was fiscal instability for the country, which resulted in the Panic of 1837 during his successor, Martin Van Buren’s, presidency. His unshakable opinion remained, however, that over the long term an immensely powerful national bank held in private hands was a danger to democracy. Revenue Tariff for revenue pays interest on debts and funds within the government while

Thursday, October 31, 2019

What makes Rembrandt's art so loved by viewers over time Essay

What makes Rembrandt's art so loved by viewers over time - Essay Example long run, this interest made him profoundly influence innumerable artists who came; both in European and American these include Francisco Goya, Jim Dine, David Hockney and Vincent Van Gogh. Rembrandt was many times considered genius in his work, and this was as a result of the uniqueness of his work which included a range of themes that related to the life at that time the contemporary society. The many works of Rembrandt are such as The Night Watch, Self-Portrait with Two Circles, The Storm on the Sea of Galilee, Danae, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, Bathsheba at Her Bath among others. In considering Night watch that was a 1642 painting, is known for various aspects despite being a static military portrait. The Night Watch is a given portrait of the militia company of bold Captain Frans Cocq and Lieutenant Willem Ruytenburgh being at the center). Key elements are such as the effective use of light and shadow and perception of motion (Ackley,

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Critically analyse the midwives role in relation to the administration Essay - 1

Critically analyse the midwives role in relation to the administration of epidural anaesthesia - Essay Example (2004), the concentration of the anaesthetic that is used to prevent or block the propagation of the stimuli from the uterus and birth canal vary from one case to the other.Higher doses are used when the mobility of the stimuli is to be fully blocked. Despite the advantages of this technique that has been commonly used during labour, it is also associated with some problems. Some of the known problems include shivering, fever, cardiovascular depression as well as retention of urine in the patients’ bladder. The anaesthetic can be administered through a bolus, continuous infusion or through PCP.PCP refers to the use of a patent controlled pump. According to Benfield (2002), the last ten years, about 24 % of women have used epidural analgesia during labour in the United Kingdom. In addition to this, about 60 % of those women who underwent assistive delivery also used this technique. Midwives do play an important role during the administration of epidural analgesia. Most of the roles are focused on monitoring the women to ensure their overall well being. The NICE guidelines lay out the duties and responsibilities of the midwives during the administration of epidural analgesia. The midwives work in collaboration with obstetricians and anaesthetist in the maternity clinics. All these three professionals have their specific duties that are concisely and clearly laid down in the NNC guidelines (Nursing & Midwifery Council 2014). The midwife, just like the other professionals always follows these guidelines when caring for the pregnant women in labour who are being given epidural analgesia as a way of relieving the pain that resu lt from the contraction of the birth canal and the uterus. The midwife, working with the obstetrician and anaesthetist may consider epidural analgesia for the expectant women for several reasons. Some of the reasons why this can be done include maternal request, prolonged and painful labour, multiple pregnancy and anticipated instrumental

Sunday, October 27, 2019

What Is A Travel Agency Tourism Essay

What Is A Travel Agency Tourism Essay Travel agency  is a confidential  seller/  public service  that present  tourism related  services  to the  public  on behalf of  dealers  like hotel, package tour, railways, rentals car, airlines, sea ways, and airlines. addition to trading with regular  tourists  the majority agencies have a separate department committed to making travel arrangements for commercial travelers and a number of travel agencies focus in commercial travel only. There are also travel agencies that provide as  general sales agents  for overseas businesses, allowing them to have  branches in  regions and nations  other than where their head offices  are placed. Operation Agencys major role is to perform as a  representative. Promoting travel goods and services on behalf of a dealer. Therefore, similar to other retail industries, they dont have a  stock  in stores. A holiday pack or a ticket is not obtained from a dealer till a consumer desires that purchase. The holiday or ticket is providing to them at money off offer. The  revenue  is consequently the variation among the marketing cost which the consumer pays and the discounted cost at which it is offered to the agent. This is known as the  commission. In countless countries, all persons or companies that trade tickets are necessary to be licensed as a travel agent. Many British and American agencies license are based on these associations:-   (IATA) international transport association-  for who issue air tickets (ATOL)  air travel organizers licensing- for who order tickets    (ABTA)  associations of British travel agent or the   (ASTA) the American society of travel agent, for who trade package holidays on behalf of a tour company. Ticketing Reserve and distributing tickets is a most important function of the travel agency. It is necessary for travel agency workers to have familiarity or knowledge about Air travel in the worldwide as well as national segment. This knowledge undertakes a range of other features such as booking methods, class of travel, prohibited matter, special customers, passports, visas, travel directories, hotel guide. Supervisor or an worker have to know the variety of procedures linked to these Management tasks Similar to any other business if you have it in mind to set up and run a travel agency company efficiently you have to apply the management concepts and functions not only in scheduling but also in processing. The organization tasks in a travel agency are linked to the character of business process and the services provided. The key responsibility of travel agency is to supply the purchase of travel to the client at a suitable place. It is at these places that the travel agencies act as reservation representative for road or water transport, railways, hotels, package tours, airlines. They also offer convinced additional services such as, traveler cheque, procuring of visas, foreign exchange, travel insurance, airport transport, customer clearances, permits, etc. A travel agency also behaves like a travel advisor suggesting consultancy on ideas like: How to travel? When to travel and where? Where to stay or do shopping, etc.? Information about rules, policy, safety, etc. Such suggestions are possible only after identifying the clients requirements and attitudes. This part has to be completed neutrally by the travel agency in order to provide the best to the client. Travel agencies are divided in a range of ways. The differences can be based on their memberships such as International Air Transport Association (IATA), Pacific Area Travel Association (PATA), American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA), Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA), World Association of Travel Agents (WATA), Universal Federation of Travel Agents Association (UFTA) or Travel Agents Association of srilanka (TAASL). These recognitions can also be identified by the kind of trade or services they are providing. Acquiring Product familiarity or Knowledge If not a director acquires product knowledge or familiarity with products, it is hard to be successful in travel agency industry. This is exactly true because the majority of the travel agencies are small family businesses with proprietor performing as managers and use little workforce. The managers themselves must have a best product familiarity or knowledge in order to lead and direct their workforce. This is related for mutually, outbound as well as domestic travel. A travel agency workforce should have full familiarity or knowledge of- Destinations: Whether conditions, Political environment, Special events and community holidays, Customs, culture and cuisine of destination, Main attractions, Physical condition and other hazards, Money exchange rates, Travel policy regulations and documents, Lodging facilities, Airlines: Reservation system, Travel Route operations, Flight agenda, Charges, Types of airplanes, Services offered on board, Connecting flights, Airports: Timings, Amenities, Travel Agencies Product knowledge can be obtained From a variety of sources. It is equally Custom and safety regulations, Distances from city, Transportations: Connections or contacts Car rentals, A reservation method and procedures. Other Aspects: Package tours, Excursions, Principal Suppliers: Image and financial standing, Services offered, Quality of service, Commissions offered, Forming or setting up a travel agency To form a travel agency business has to make sure about following aspects: Monetary and Infrastructural requirement, Approval from concerned parties, Recognitions from major suppliers or dealers, Infrastructural and Financial or monetary Requirements Forming a new business in this subject the big capital requirements are less. Most require investment are for the following: Purchase of Suitable office space, Office furniture, Communication system and tools such as, computer, telecommunications Wages for the employees, Office equipment such as, document, files, tag, letterheads Before formulate the travel agency business a significant point to be think is the situated place of the agency or the position of agency. The majority of the travel agents have their offices in busy cities. Travel agents vie for business in the place where they are positioned. At the same time selecting on the position of your office, you should make sure that it is in the marketplace with close access to profitable business. Approvals from Concerned parties Travel agencies want some approvals for start and function the business such approvals are: Recognitions From the (IATA) International Air Transport Association is the global association of Scheduled Airlines. To apply for International Air Transport Association approval an application has to be presented by completing out the essential details, Forms, and sent to Sedentary, Agency Investigation, according to agency investigation below aspects will tartan- Capability to find and procure air traveler transportation Professional standing Financial or economy position Business building, location, etc Workforce experience A final inspection is held and the approval is provided by International Air Transport Association. Mainly it is important state here that all International Air Transport Association approved Agents obtain 9% commission on global air tickets and 6% on domestic air line tickets. Recognition and Licenses Travel agencies have to look for recognition or licensed from Department of Tourism, Travel agency association of srilanka(TAASL) Recognition from the major suppliers such as, the airlines, Banks and recognition by the dealing hotels. Civil aviation license registration  (according to Srilanka) Manager prefer the status of that company   Manager and two staffs with qualified diploma certificate authorized institute. (Have to face an interview to recognizes and get the permission) Original business registration certificate (BRC) True copy from share holders and shares details. If that company based on one person they will need company details and future achievement Section 51 form that ,the main one share holders original details including share percentage MEMBERSHIP PROCEDURE Membership Entrance Fee Rs. 20,000/- Membership Subscription for the ensuring year Rs. 10,000/- Total Rs. 30,000/- Needed Documents Registration Certificate issued by the Ceylon Tourist Board License Certificate to carry on Business as a Travel Agent issued by the Ceylon Tourist Board for the current financial year License Certificate to carry on Business issued by the Aviation Authority for the current year Certificate of Company Registration A letter confirming the authorized and paid up capital form the Auditors TRAVEL AGENTS ASSOCIATION OF SRI LANK APPLICATION FORM FOR MEMBERSHIP The Secretary Travel Agents Association of Sri Lanka COLOMBO Name of Company: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Address: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Business: State Nature of Tourist Activities: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Name / Designation of Contact Person: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Tel No: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Fax No: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Email Address: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Signature of Applicant: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Date: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ I / We wish to apply for election as a member of the Travel Agents Association of Sri Lanka and I/We hereby agree to be bound by the Rules of the Association from time to time in force and by the decision of the General Committee. Signature of Applicant: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Date: †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Services offered Tour packages(family travel, group travel, adventure travel, incentive travel ) Domestic and international tour packages hotel and resort lodging to air transportation car rental needs travel insurance security visa procedures Immunization procedures and other foreign travel requirements. Urgency toll-free phone numbers ticketing airline seating preference Smoking and non-smoking designation It all based on personal interests and budget concerns. License to carry on business as a travel agent C:UsersSingheDocumentsSri-Lanka-Tourism-Development-Authority-Licence-to-Carry-on-Business-as-Travel-Agent-2010.jpg

Friday, October 25, 2019

Karl Marx :: Karl Marx Biography Essays

Karl Marx Karl Marx was the greatest thinker and philosopher of his time. His views on life and the social structure of his time revolutionized the way in which people think. He created an opportunity for the lower class to rise above the aristocrats and failed due to the creation of the middle class. Despite this failure, he was still a great political leader and set the basis of Communism in Russia. His life contributed to the way people think today, and because of him people are more open to suggestion and are quicker to create ideas on political issues. Karl Heinrich Marx was born May 5th, 1818 in Trier. Although he had three other siblings, all sisters, he was the favorite child to his father, Heinrich. His mother, a Dutch Jewess named Henrietta Pressburg, had no interest in Karl's intellectual side during his life. His father was a Jewish lawyer, and before his death in 1838, converted his family to Christianity to preserve his job with the Prussian state. When Heinrich's mother died, he no longer felt he had an obligation to his religion, thus helping him in the decision in turning to Christianity. Karl's childhood was a happy and care-free one. His parents had a good relationship and it help set Karl in the right direction." His ‘splendid natural gifts' awakened in his father the hope that they would one day be used in the service of humanity, whilst his mother declared him to be a child of fortune in whose hands everything would go well. (The story of his life, Mehring, page 2) In high school Karl stood out among the crowd. When asked to write a report on "How to choose a profession" he took a different approach. He took the angle in which most interested him, by saying that there was no way to choose a profession, but because of circumstances one is placed in an occupation. A person with a aristocratic background is more likely to have a higher role in society as apposed to someone from a much poorer background. While at Bonn at the age of eighteen he got engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, daughter of the upperclassmen Ludwig von Westphalen. She was the childhood friend of Marx's oldest sister, Sophie. The engagement was a secret one, meaning they got engaged without asking permission of Jenny's parents. Heinrich Marx was uneasy about this but before long the consent was given.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Acute Low Back Pain Health And Social Care Essay

Acute low back hurting is a common status frequently seen by primary and pressing attention suppliers. An episode of ague low back hurting is normally of short continuance and many patients will retrieve without any curative intercession. However, the challenge is to pull off low back hurting with equal conservative intervention, restricting assorted invasive diagnostic ratings. At the same clip the supplier needs to be argus-eyed about red-flags associated with low back hurting which may necessitate further work up and referral to a spine specializer. In this manuscript, we have provided a comprehensive reappraisal about the rating, intervention and red-flags associated with low back hurting. How common is low back hurting? Acute low back hurting is a really common status, with a lifetime prevalence every bit high as 84 % , and said to be the 2nd most common ground for office visits in the United States.1 Most patients in their grownup life are likely to see one episode of low back pain.2 It can impact patients at any age, but it is most often seen between the ages of 20 to 40 old ages and gender distribution is equal.2 Anatomy of Low Back Pain. The anatomy of the dorsum is complex. A thorough cognition of anatomy is required by doctors to understand the pathophysiology of low back hurting. A typical vertebra consists of a vertebral organic structure, a vertebral arch and seven procedures ( pedicel, cross procedure, superior and inferior articular procedures, lamina and spiny procedure ) .3 ( Figure 1 ) The intervertebral phonograph record is interposed between the vertebral organic structures. The outer ring of the phonograph record is fibrocartilage ( anulus fibrosus ) while the cardinal nucleus is heavy ( nucleus pulposus ) . Hernia or bulge of the nucleus pulposus into or through the annulus fibrosus and compacting the nervus roots is a well-recognized cause of low back hurting ( Sciatica ) . The laminae of next vertebral arches are joined by the xanthous ligament- the ligamentum falva, which assist with straightening of the vertebral column after flexing. The hypertrophy of the ligamentum flava is another common cause of low back hurting ( lumbar stricture ) . There are several ligaments and extrinsic and intrinsic back musculuss attached to the spiny and cross procedures. They are necessary to back up and travel the vertebral column. Minor sprains of these ligaments and musculuss are besides a common cause of low back hurting ( musculus sprain ) . The spinal nervus roots of the lumbar and sacral spinal nervousnesss are the longest and fall in the lumbar cisterns before go outing through intervertebral hiatus. The compaction of these nervuss roots may do low back hurting and saddle anaesthesia in the perineum ( Cauda Equina Syndrome ) . Figure 1. hypertext transfer protocol: // Prepare yourself earlier clinical rating. Acute low back hurting is frequently attributed to the above said anatomical pathology. However, doctors should be ready to place marks associated with systemic diseases ( table 1 ) , societal and psychological emphasiss ( table 2 ) , and hazard factors ( table 3 ) that may be lending to moo back hurting. In add-on, ruddy flags ( table 4 ) should besides be evaluated. Table 1: Signs associated with systemic diseases4 History of malignant neoplastic disease Greater than 50 old ages of age Unexplained weight loss Greater than 1 month continuance of hurting Nighttime hurting Pain unresponsive to old therapies Table 2: Social and psychological emphasiss taking to moo back pain5 Anxiety Depression Job dissatisfaction Somatization upset Low educational attainment Psychologically strenuous work Table 3: Hazard factors for low back pain5 Smoking Fleshiness Older age Female gender Physically strenuous work Table 4: Red flags to acknowledge in patients with low back pain6 Recent injury Unexplained weight loss Unexplained febrility Immunosuppression History of malignant neoplastic disease Intravenous drug usage Osteoporosis, prolonged usage of glucocorticoids Greater than 70 old ages of age Focal neurologic shortage or disabling symptoms Pain continuance greater than 6 hebdomads Evaluate patient symptoms and correlative with anatomy. The patient rating begins with word picture of the hurting ( table 5 ) to set up the diagnosing. It should be noted that many patients have already tried non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ( NSAID ) medicines, and heat or cold battalions before confer withing the doctor. Patients frequently report hurting radiation to their leg ( radiculopathy ) . However, pain radiating below the articulatio genus is a more of import mark of true radiculopathy than hurting radiating to the thigh.7 Table 5: Word picture of the low back hurting. Where does it ache? When does it ache? How does activity impact the hurting? Does the hurting radiate? What relieves the hurting? Is hurting associated with a roseola? Differential diagnosing as per hurting history: Dull or crisp hiting lower back hurting Symptoms are worse when patient sits or stands for extended periods Pain additions with coughing or sneeze Pain radiates down the leg Pain additions with forward flexure of the spinal column Leg hurting is greater than back hurting Normally one-sided Herniated Disc Dull hurting lower back hurting Pain additions with standing and walking Pain improves with remainder and forward flexure of spinal column Pain may be one-sided or bilateral Spinal stricture Diffuse back hurting with or without cheek hurting Pain additions with motion Pain improves with remainder Pain does non radiate to leg Lumbar strain/sprain ( muscular ) Diffuse lower back hurting Bladder or intestine incontinency Urinary keeping Saddle anaesthesia Progressive motor or centripetal loss Cauda equine syndrome History of injury or osteoporosis Point tenderness Pain additions with flexure of spinal column Pain additions with alteration in position from supine to sitting or from sitting to standing place Compaction break Physical scrutiny. Physical scrutiny of the dorsum should be an of import portion in the rating of low back hurting. Inspection of the dorsum should be done to look for roseola ( Herpes Zoster ) , scoliosis or dissymmetry of musculus mass and tone ( musculus cramp ) . Physicians may be able to arouse point tenderness ( compression break ) or costo-vertebral angle tenderness ( urinary piece of land infection/Pyelonephritis ) . The bulk of patients may non be able to execute motions of the spinal column. However, efforts should be made to look into spinal motion ( whatever possible ) to find whether hurting is related to vertebral phonograph record ( hurting in forward motion ) , spinal stricture ( hurting in backward motion ) or related to muscle cramp ( hurting in all motions ) . A straight-leg rise ( SLR ) trial besides known as Lasegue ‘s sign/test should be performed to find disc herniation as the cause of low back hurting. The patient should be lying in the supine place on the tabular array with the uninvolved articulatio genus set to 45 & A ; deg ; . The doctor should keep the involved leg directly, hold the heel with the other manus in the dorsiflexed place and gently raise the leg. ( Figure 2 ) The SLR trial is positive if hurting occurs in the distal leg with leg lift between 30 & A ; deg ; and 70 & A ; deg ; . Doctors should besides execute crossed SLR. The trial is positive when the physician lifts the unaffected leg and the hurting radiates below the articulatio genus in the affected leg. All attempts should be made to find the site of nervus root compaction in the lumbar country ( table 6 ) . However, it should be noted that the value of these trials decline with forward age. Figure 2. hypertext transfer protocol: // Table 6: Signs and symptoms of nervus root compaction. L3 and L4 Decreased strength in quadriceps ( unable to execute extension at the articulatio genus ) Unable to crouch and lift Diminished articulatio genus dork Numbness ( dysesthesias ) over thigh/knee L5 Decreased strength in extensor big toes longus musculus Unable to make list walking Unable to make dorsiflexion of great toe and pes Numbness over large toe and medical pes S1 Decreased strength in toe flexors Unable to make plantar flexure of great toe and pes Unable to walk on toes Numbness over 5th toe and sidelong pes Ankle dork is diminished S2-S4 ( Cauda equina ) Progressive motor or sensory shortage New onset bowel and bladder disfunction Numbness over perineum ( saddle dysesthesia ) Loss of anal sphincter tone What research lab or radiographic testing should I make for low back hurting? Patients with low back hurting of less than six hebdomads continuance should be treated cautiously unless ruddy flags are present.8 There are several laboratory surveies and radiographic trials that are recommended to measure low back hurting. The American College of Radiology has published a guideline to help doctors to find when they need to make imaging for low back pain.9 ( table 7 ) ( Table 8 ) . Table 7: Recommended research lab trials to find cause of low back hurting Erythrocyte deposit rate ( ESR ) C-reactive protein ( CRP ) White blood cell count ( WBC ) Table 8: Recommended Radiographic proving for low back hurting Complain X raies Used to measure for break, malignance, degenerative alterations, disc infinite narrowing and anterior surgery Magnetic resonance imagination ( MRI ) Without contrast is recommended Used to measure disc herniation, spinal stricture, osteomyelitis, spinal extradural abscess, bone metastases and nervous tubing defects CT scan CT is superior to MRI for sensing of bony abnormalcies, breaks, unnatural aspect articulations, degenerative alterations, and inborn abnormalcies CT is besides superior to kick X raies to observe alterations in sacroiliac articulations of ancylosing spondylitis Myelogram Not routinely recommended Used to measure multiple phonograph record abnormalcies, multilevel radiculopathies or old lumbar surgery Management of ague low back hurting. Numerous interventions have been recommended for ague low back hurting. They have their ain virtues and demerits. It is nevertheless good intelligence for primary and pressing attention suppliers to cognize that the forecast of ague low back hurting is first-class and up to 90 % of patients will better on their own.6 We have summarized different intervention protocols for ague low back hurting in table 9. Table 9: Treatment of ague low back hurting. Bed remainder and alteration of physical activities Bed remainder used to be the criterion of attention for ague low back hurting in the yesteryear. It is recommended now that early ambulation, alteration of physical activities and return to normal activities has better outcomes.9 Tax return to work recommendations should be individualized.10 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory Symptoms of low back hurting were improved with NSAIDs compared to placebo after one week11 Recommended for 2-4 hebdomads Doctors should be cognizant of the nephrotoxicity and GI toxicity associated with NSAIDs11 Muscle relaxants Muscle relaxants are more effectual than placebo12 A combination of a musculus relaxant and an NSAID provides effectual symptom control Muscle relaxants are associated with giddiness and sedation12 Opioids Misuse and maltreatment are common with opiates13 Use should be short term and based on clinical judgement Opioids may merely be used at bedtime to restrict side effects Exercise and physical therapy There are conflicting consequences sing the significance of early physical therapy14 Exercise and physical therapy may assist to forestall return of low back hurting Cold and heat There is no grounds that cold or heat benefit low back pain15 Patient instruction Patient instruction is necessary and of import in bettering results Discussion. Uncomplicated ( without ruddy flags ) acute low back hurting is a self- modification status that does non necessitate imagination or research lab surveies. It is our sentiment that suppliers should hold a good apprehension of the anatomy of the dorsum to better evaluate and dainty patients with acute low back hurting. They should besides be argus-eyed to observe ruddy flags associated with the patient ‘s low back hurting. In add-on to the interventions mentioned in table 9, many extra intervention schemes have been recommended for ague low back hurting. These include spinal use, massage and yoga, stylostixis, grip and braces.16,17 Unfortunately, none of these have been shown to better back hurting significantly over placebo. Epidural steroid injections have been used as intervention for low back hurting as good. These injections have merely been shown to better symptoms for a short continuance. They besides have non been shown to be more effectual than systemic cort icosteroids.18,19 In decision, it appears that short term intervention with NSAIDs with or without musculus relaxants and patient instruction are key in the direction of ague low back hurting in pressing attention.