Monday, September 30, 2019

No Zero Policy Essay

In most schools in many states, teachers and parents consider a grade of zero acceptable for incomplete homework. It is common for teachers to give zeros for late or slacked off assignments. Unfortunately, few teachers or parents question the usefulness of the consequence, and students continue to reap the consequences without benefit. Giving zeros as an punished measurement produces failure rather than performance. Administrators conjure up the fact that raising questions about grading procedures could induce powerful emotional responses from all the teachers. Even when school policies exist, teachers often deviate from the prescribed standard to reflect the teacher’s personal preferences for evaluating students. Grading policies usually develop from teachers’ personal school experiences without questioning or considering the validity of the process. Most teachers agree that grades are a measurement of learning and should reflect the effort of the student rather than the knowledge. However, many grading policies promise zeros for things like not doing homework, having incomplete or late assignments, being tardy, coming to class without books, chewing gum, or failing to follow through with any other required classroom rules. Unfortunately, many teachers combine behavior issues with a students’ academic measurement. Giving zeros for behavior issues is an inaccurate reflection of the student’s academic performance. Academic measurement should only measure learning. A zero is a mathematically imbalanced measurement as the normal grading scale for most school. Conant using the unbalanced tipped scale for certain performance classes. Letter grades usually have a ten point range or less. For instance, A would be 90-100, B is 80-89, C is 70-79, D is 60-69. Using this method, an evaluation for an â€Å"F† should be F as 50-59. It is not required for the â€Å"F† to carry 59 points (0-59) while all other grades carry 10 points. An â€Å"A† averaged with an â€Å"F† should make a â€Å"C.† However, if the â€Å"A† is 100 and the â€Å"F† is 0, averaged they equal a 50 which is still an â€Å"F†. Teachers usually use zeros to motivate students to do better. However, zeros kill motivation. Two zeros, whether just or unjust, can destroy a good average. Zeros produce a sense of hopelessness and certain failure. Many students fail courses due to a lack of organizational abilities rather than defiance. When teachers give zeros for homework assigned for extra credit rather than for the actual learning process, they are using grades as a behavior punishment. Recording a failing grade for assignments not intended for the means of simple knowledge is not reasonable. Assigning zeros for homework issues is especially common for students with organizational issues and dysfunctional homes that lack parental support. The grade of a zero does not benefit the motivation of a child’s education. Students through laziness take zeros as an easy way out of doing the assignment. Students often avoid assignments like research papers, essays, and reports by taking a zero instead of doing the work. The student barely passes to the next grade without having gained these vital learning experiences. Students with organizational problems do not increase performance skills through the automatic zero. Neither does the automatic zero help students who do not understand the assignment gain the knowledge intended. In fact, the automatic zero threatens failure. Teachers need to use logical consequences rather than a full blown zero when work is not completed. There are several possible alternatives to giving a zero. The school can include tardiness and other behavior issues in its own discipline policy rather than in the grading system. If the teacher must give a failing grade, give a grade no more than ten points lower than the last passing grade to make the measurement equitable. The teacher can have a homework detention hall after school to help those who struggle with completing assignments. The student receives a grade of incomplete until the student completes major assignments such as research papers, essays, and reports. The final average for the term is recorded only when the assignments are all received and graded. The student cannot earn credit for the course until these valuable assignments are completed and turned in. A minimal passing grade would be appropriate for extremely late assignments. For many years teachers have followed grading procedures learned from their teachers without evaluating their effectiveness or appropriateness. Grades should measure academic learning not the slacking effort of the student, for they may have their reasons. Receiving a zero for not putting your name on a paper or failing to do homework does not reflect a student’s lack of knowledge. Zeros promote failure rather than the student gaining more knowledge. Three 100’s averaged with one zero gives a score of 75. The zero forces failure and is not an evenhanded measurement of learning. Anything that is inequitable is unjust. If it is unjust, it is unethical. Therefore, giving zeros as an academic measurement is not proper to the safe learning environment of High Schools.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Cipp Model of Evaluating a Curriculum

CIPP Model of Evaluation The CIPP model was developed by Stufflebeam (1983) to evaluate curriculums through Context, Input, Process, and Product. The Context defines the operation within which the curriculum will be delivered. It determines the specific characteristics of the learners. Most importantly, it helps to establish a rationale for the determination of the curriculum objectives. In evaluation the context is used to define the environment relevant to the curriculum, describing the actual and intended conditions of the program, identifying unmet needs, and diagnosing barriers that prevent needs from being met.Input identifies and assesses the capabilities, strategies, and designs available for implementing the curriculum as related to the curriculum’s objectives. It determines what internal resources are needed to enable achievement of the objectives and to search for external resources when required. Also, the input phase considers the cost to implement the curriculum. In evaluation the input determines to what extent available resources were used to achieve the curriculum objectives. Process identifies the procedural design that will be used to implement the curriculum.The curriculum objectives are translated in specific activities that constitute the instructional design. In evaluation the process is used to identify deficiencies in the procedural design or in the implementation of the curriculum, i. e. , what actually took place during instruction. To provide information necessary to make modifications to the implementation strategies used during instruction. Product defines the measurable outcomes of the curriculum both during and at the completion of instruction. These outcomes are directly related to the curriculum objectives.In evaluation the product is used to compare actual outcomes against a standard of what is acceptable to make judgments to continue, terminate, modify, or refocus an activity. Evaluation of the Primary Science Curricul um (Levels Infants-Standard5) using the CIPP Model. This curriculum is sequenced into six (6) strands per level of the seven (7) syllabi in which it aids teachers in producing a lesson which helps pupils to develop important concepts in primary science. They help the pupil develop a sound understanding of the living and material world. The strands are: 1) Living things 2) Ecosystems 3) Matter and Materials ) Structures and Mechanisms 5) Energy 6) Earth and Space Context The relation of these courses to the other courses from level infants to standard 5 is the dept in which the topics have evolved in order for the students to gain a deeper understanding of the scientific method and broaden their minds. It is time adequate because it is spread throughout the three terms and is continued to a higher extent every level change. The critical/ important external factor is the ministry of education in which they develop the curriculum to host particular outcomes specific for the exams which follow these lessons at the end of each term.The courses can be integrated into each other for students to grasp knowledge of the methods used in understanding science as well as some of the courses implementing more hands on activities to further the learning process of each student. The links between the courses and research/extension activities are grounds in which the students gain more understanding of each topic through a combination of the new information to the already learnt knowledge from ideas like experiments and projects which help each student understand the content of the course.The course is needed for the students to develop skills in inquiry and the scientific method of investigation to boost the capacity of their learning abilities and will be very useful in society as employers are in need of employees with the ability to think critically and problem solve through the scientific method of investigation. Inputs The students enter with the ability of competence, c uriosity, understanding, creativity, and sensitivity in the event of new knowledge within the science program.The learning styles of each student will differ but from the activities preformed by the teacher and fellow students to further understand the content the students will grasp the new information than if it were just â€Å"wrote learning†. The students become motivated when activities are introduced to the lesson. Some students may live in homes where they are not able to get information for projects which pertain to the lesson and the teachers make arrangements to accommodate these students.The student’s existing knowledge is that of life experience and when they are explained in class the students not have the capability to take the new knowledge and assimilate it with the old knowledge to form new schemes. The aims of the lessons are suitable to the levels in which they are specifically proposed. The objectives, specific to the lesson whether it be senses or space and time or enquiries, are derived from and complement these aims effectively. The course is very clearly defined and the knowledge skills and attitudes match each student’s ability to cope with the content of the lesson.The content of the lesson is appropriate to the age group in which it will be taught and is relevant to real life situations and experiences which makes it easier for the students to develop problem solving skills. The resources and equipment needed will be to further impart knowledge on the students such as field trips, charts, pictures, and experiments. The teachers and the students each have the specific texts books are the ministry provides these books for the schools.The teachers should have the ability to develop new methods in which to teach these lessons to the students as it centers on discovery by the students guided by the teachers. The time available is very different compared to the workload that must be done to accomplish the tasks set for ward by the aims and objectives as the preparation for the lesson takes more time that other lessons due to the fact that the teach now has to facilitate and guide the learning rather than teach the content.Process The workload of students is now broaden as the students have more to accomplish on their own with the other subject areas to take into consideration as these science lessons require more from students. Students will participate in these types of lessons more than the others because it centers on students discovering their potential to investigate and acquire new information on their own with guidance from their teachers. There are little to no problems related to teaching and learning.Also there is an effective two way communication in which the teachers as specific question to arrive at the answer that facilitate critical thinking and problem solving in each student. The students use the knowledge transferred to them to further their understanding of the real world and a pply this knowledge to new situations that arise. The students have no issues with using/applying/analyzing the knowledge and skills being learnt as they understand that it is present in everyday experiences. The teaching and learning process is continuously evaluated in the form of activities and written assignments such as projects and portfolios.The teachings of these lessons are not affected by practical/institutional problems because the teachers teach to one particular syllabus which can fit into any program whether different in terms of culture or religion. The students and teachers need to be very understanding to each student for the duration of imparting knowledge as it develops interpersonal skills. The discipline is maintained by the teacher who asserts the time in which each student must speak and quickly disciplines while teaching the class.Unknown to the class the teacher controls the level of noise through transitional methods which grasp the attention of each studen t. Product At the end of each term an examination is conducted to evaluate the content taught during the course. There is no information on the final assessment of the science curriculum but there are assessments at the end of each lesson. The assessments of the lessons are designed toward the KSA (Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes) of each student towards the content of the lesson.The KSA after a course was reported as improved as each child developed new skills in which they can process new information and investigate new ways in which to respond to questions. Students use what they have learnt to develop new skills in the simple processes like play. Each student has developed an understanding of the overall experience during each lesson and has developed new skills of deduction. The main lessons learned were to stimulate curiosity and creativity, develop competence in the use of knowledge and scientific method, and develop a critical awareness of the role of science in everyday li ving.The official report is done and sent to the ministry to further evaluate the determine the effectiveness of the curriculum and to alter what may be needed to change. Teachers whom have the ability to successfully teach the science curriculum will have an added merit to their reputation and the ministry will see no need to change the curriculum while if there were more teachers that have failed to effectively teach the science curriculum the ministry will reevaluate the content make amendments to the curriculum.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Proposal paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Proposal paper - Essay Example ncreasingly explored if and how the Internet develops or impairs social skills development (Engelberg & Sjà ¶berg, 2004) and psychological health (Campbell, Cumming, & Hughes, 2006; Titov et al., 2008). Previous studies showed mixed results on the impact of Internet use on children, adolescents, and young adults. On the one hand, several researchers showed that high Internet usage can lead to Internet addiction, which can consequently contribute to the formation of poor social skills and adjustment (Engelberg & Sjà ¶berg 2004), including bullying behaviors (Schoffstall & Cohen, 2011), depression, and loneliness (Kim, LaRose, & Peng, 2009). On the other hand, other researchers learned from their studies that Internet usage can be constructively used to develop better social skills (Campbell et al., 2006; Titov et al., 2008), while other scholars observed from their study that the purposes of Internet usage can impact social skills development and psychological welfare (Ceyhan, 2011; Kim et al., 2009). However, these researchers have not examined how Internet use can lead to positive or negative effects on social skills. In particular, they have not examined if only certain uses of the Internet and Internet usage duration contribute to poor social skills and psychological health (i.e. using it mainly for entertainment or socializing with strangers), and if gender and age impact these positive/negative outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the research on the positive and negative effects of high Internet usage/purposes on social skills, and to provide support for the gap in literature that will spur further research. Do certain purposes of using the Internet and duration of Internet usage positively or negatively affect social skills? The independent variables are Internet usage and purposes of Internet usage, as well as gender and age, while the dependent variables are social skills. For the age levels, grades three to four are considered as young

Friday, September 27, 2019

Forensic Evidence Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Forensic Evidence - Case Study Example According to Mr. and Mrs. Anderson, Caroline is a college student at the State University of New York and has a part-time clerical job at the university. They do not have the resources to locate their missing daughter, personally; hence, they are seeking the help of NYPD. Interview is the very basic thing to do in this case. Talking to Caroline's family, relatives, boyfriend, friends, flatmates, workmates and schoolmates will help us truly determine her background and what transpired before she disappeared. Among the questions to be answered are: What is her everyday routine Have they noticed anything awkward in her actuations in the past few days What are her affiliations Who are the persons she has been going out lately Is there a reason for her to run away Is it the first time for her to run away, go somewhere without telling her parents or anyone close to her If so, what was her reason for running away before Has she quarreled with anyone lately Has she confided about noticing something suspicious Apart from the interview with relatives, friends and contacts, Caroline Anderson's photograph is one of the basic evidences. How can investigators find a missing person without having an idea of how the person looks like However, the photograph handed over by Caroline's family should not be solely relied on. It has to be uploaded to a computer to see how a person looks in different angles, different hairstyles or colors. Check Telephone Records Today, almost everybody has their own mobile phone for easy communication access. Hence, it is a must to check on the telephone company if Caroline has made any calls, local or long distance, prior to her disappearance (Galloway, 1997). Or she may have made a call at the time when she's reported missing. The people whom she called and the telephone record itself can provide a lead on her whereabouts. A number of cases have been solved from a lead taken at a telephone record. Multi-awarded investigator, Gil Alba, solved a case of a missing person by taking off from a lead on telephone record; Alba Investigations and the family of the missing person had a clue from the cellphone that this person is somewhere in Canada (Gassler, 2003). Revisit the path If Caroline Anderson disappeared after calling on her parents at New Jersey, the investigators must revisit the path she took while paying attention to every detail along the way. Coordination with the state's Police Department will also help. This will enable the investigator to check whether an unusual incident occurred during the time and day when Caroline Anderson is supposed to be traveling back to New York. If an unidentified female body was found nearby, the investigator can check on this. Hospitals and funeral parlors are worth checking as well. The family might believe that Caroline is still alive or just went somewhere, but investigators must be very objective. Visit Caroline's place Apart from her route, Caroline's flat, workplace and school also need to be revisited for some clue on her whereabout

Thursday, September 26, 2019

How FDI Helps Nurture Domestic Competition Environment Dissertation

How FDI Helps Nurture Domestic Competition Environment - Dissertation Example Second, the typical Solow growth model is offered aiming at simplifying the main drives for economic growth. Moreover, a comprehensive analysis of the actions of the MNEs is included. As a result, this method provides a multi-dimensional approach which puts emphasis on the modifications in efficiency, labour and possible spillover effects arising from the MNEs’ actions in China. Table of Content Contents Abstract 2 Table of Content 3 Contents 3 Introduction 3 Literature Review 5 Theoretical Framework 6 The Model 6 Conceptual Framework 11 Unconditional Approach 13 Conditional Approach 14 Total Factor Productivity Approach 16 Methodology 18 Research Methods 18 Data Sources 19 References 20 Introduction One of the greatest sensitive zones in international economics currently is Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Developing countries like China dread misuse on one hand, and insufficient access to foreign capital, expertise, marketing, and administration skills on the other. FDI comp rises a course of financial capital and impalpable assets like technology, professional capabilities, promotion skills and other possessions (Blonigen, 2005). It is worth noting that direct investment, in most cases, it begins with a minute or no net flow of financial capital. Occasionally, the parent company only adds its trademark name, managerial principles pegged with other assets of the less tangible variety (Moosa, 2002). A good prevarication strategy for a parent company that has foreign currency possessions in its partners is to take on foreign currency obligations as well (Ruane, & Ugur, 2005). This is made available by appropriating in foreign moneys that are used to fund the affiliate. In the current years, the portion of the developing nations as a basis of FDI significantly intensifies. However, the lion’s part is reserved to the EU nations, USA and Japan which make up for 80-90 percent of the entire FDI outflows. In situations where FDI is measured as a proporti on of GDP, the developed nations still account for the inordinate majority of FDI outflows (Kneller & Pisu, 2005). The role of FDI unavoidably increases in a quickly globalizing world. Bill Gates once said: â€Å"No one gets to vote on whether technology is going to change our lives†. By utilizing this quote as a representation, comparable parallels can be made in respect to FDI. No doubt, FDI has developed into an evitable part of the current globalized world and no person has the authority to stop this development. Therefore, it is vital that the consequences of FDI to the host economies be carefully and independently assessed. It is worth declaring that this is not an easy task, bearing in mind the schism of the bulk of opinions (Simpson, 2010). GDP, Export and FDI flows* *(Constant 1995 US$ index numbers, 1970=100, log scale) Source: Navaretti & Venables, 2004 Literature Review Theoretical Framework This chapter targets to provide the dissertation with a resilient theoret ical framework in association with economic growth pegged with its determinants. By understanding and appreciating what motivates the development in the short and long-run, it will be much tranquil to identify the influence that FDI has on the domestic competition environment. The beginning point of this investigation is the structure of a production function. Bestowing Alfaro, Kalemli-Ozcan and Sayek, (2009), we will use Solow’s neo-classical model of economic growth as a foundation of the discussion. This model was a

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Analysis of the financial statements of three leading supermarkets in Research Paper

Analysis of the financial statements of three leading supermarkets in UK - Research Paper Example Reporting financial results in a transparent and straightforward fashion is a means to an end (Fridson & Alvarez, 2002). The financial performance of a company can be discerned by the different financial ratios in accounting that tries to evaluate the overall financial condition of a company. The different financial ratios can be categorised into liquidity ratios, activity ratios, debt ratios and profitability ratios. Liquidity ratios measure the company's availability of cash to pay its obligations and debts. Activity ratios measure the ability of the company to convert non-cash assets into cash. Debt ratios measure the company's capability to repay long term obligations. Profitability ratios measures how the company controls its expenses and uses its assets in order to generate an acceptable rate of return. Based on the financial statements and financial ratios calculated, Tesco is more liquid than Sainsbury and Morrison. The liquidity of the company is measured by the current assets ratio as well as the acid test ratio. An asset is liquid if can be readily converted to cash, while a liability is liquid if it must be repaid in the near future. The current assets ratio compares the assets that will turn into cash within the year to the liabilities that must be paid within the year. The acid test ratio is a more conservative liquidity measure where the numerator of the current ratio is reduced by the value of its inventory. (Higgins, 1995) The trends of Tesco's liquidity ratios are increasing from 2007 to 2009. This means that the company has

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Discuss the economic and social significance of interracial marriages Research Paper

Discuss the economic and social significance of interracial marriages and families - Research Paper Example In the opinion of Root â€Å"while hate, fear, and anger are common responses to interracial marriage and have powerful short-term affects, love has proved a formidable opponent† (Root, 1). However, the degree to which interracial marriages are affected by distinctions of values, habits, raising children, friends, in-laws etc are found to be greater than any other type of marriage (Interracial Marriages). As Roots (43) believes subtle difference between caste and class is enough for causing higher hostility between interracial partners than others. To illustrate, the couples of interracial marriages often share different ethical values which lead to disagreements and conflicts among them. The difference in eating habits and type of food consumed are found to be one of the major problems encountered by couples particularly in interracial marriages. In addition, they share different notions on the preparation methods and the way of consumption. Interracial couples encounter diss imilarities and unlike views in their outlook and gender roles. The western and non-western societies have distinct outlook on the role of women in family and society. The extent of liberty and freedom enjoyed by women also influences the relationship of interracial couples. When individuals of different societies with dissimilar races bind in the relationship of marriage, they often fail to play their roles effectively. The expectation of higher dignity and consideration from other races often persuade individuals to get into interracial relationships. But this over expectation and other moral disagreements restrict the success of interracial marriages. Thus gender role expectations significantly influence the decisions and actions of interracial couples (Interracial Marriages). The root cause for the problems out of interracial marriages is that it is not accepted and encouraged by the society. The society tends to classify people on their races and culture. As a result, interraci al couples usually encounter problems including lack of friends and well-wishers in the society. They tend to maintain less interaction with society or remain isolated from the society. The in-laws of interracial couples have different views on the lives of their children which also will directly influence the relationship of interracial couples. Most of the problems of interracial marriages start when it comes to the upbringing of children born to them. The method of child rearing differs from one race to the other. They often find trouble with choosing the best strategies for their children’s development. Furthermore, interracial marriages are found to have great impact on the lives of their multicultural children too. For instance, the children of interracial couple normally face discrimination and inequality in society and sometimes even at home. They face challenges on their racial identity; and often fail to categorize them into a particular group. Moreover, there may b e pressure from parental side to choose a particular identity while the child may wish to pursue the other one. In addition, there may also be a situation of agreement of child and parents for a particular racial identity but when the society may not accept it. Children get mentally disturbed and annoyed with unfairness and inequity at the school level. Racism becomes one of the key issues in the school environments. Children of interra

Monday, September 23, 2019

Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 102

Essay Example The geographical location of Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is an arm of Johns Hopkins University and is mainly popular for giving medical related educational programs and its involvement in medical researches. It is one of the highest rated medical graduate schools in the United States of America. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine was founded by famous medical professionals including William Henry Welch who was a pathologist, William Osler who was an internist, William Stewart Halsted who was a surgeon, and Howard Atwood Kelly who was a gynecologist (Grauer 165). Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is one of the highest rated medical higher learning institutions in terms of their performance in medical researches. Ithas been impressive in medical studies in the past four years. It has in a very long period been ranked amongst the best three research oriented medical higher learning institutes in the United States of America. This is something that can attract any nurse that is willing to further their education. One thing about medical related professions is that they highly rely on findings from researches and studies (Flynn and Longmore 211). As a nurse getting a chance to further your education at an institution whose prowess in medical researches has been proved is something that does not require any second thoughts. Another thing that is notable about the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine is that it has a team of highly capable teaching staff. In medical professions the skills and experience of instructors usually matters allot. This does not only matter in nursing, but also in other profession. At Johns Hopkins School of Medicine hiring of instructors and lecturers is always done on the virtue of the merits. Most of the lecturers who have been accorded contracts are people who have proved their ability in developing highly

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Research a medical topic of interest to you using professional medical Paper

A medical topic of interest to you using professional medical journals such as Jama, nursing or dental or physical, occupational, or speech journals - Research Paper Example This leaves prevention as the only feasible alternative to control the virus. The prevention is done through immunization of attenuated forms of the virus to induce the body to develop natural immunity against the virus (John, 2002). Cases of poliomyelitis have declined in the recent decades but it is still too early to celebrate. The elimination of the second of the three-poliovirus serotypes; type 2 was eliminated in 1999.This marked a milestone achievement and evidence that the global resolve to eliminate paralytic poliomyelitis is attainable. Improvements in immunization and continuous surveillance are ideal in the completion of eradication of polio (Samwel et al, 1991). The feat of polio eradication is highly supported by polio programs, innovations such as global positioning system, mapping, and strategies of immunization at transit points. It is strategic to declare polio as a global health emergency to arouse concerted efforts by countries globally to eliminate the disease. The shift from the use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is timely and appropriate. This is because of the magnitude of reduced effectiveness of OPV in locations with high burden of enteric pathogens and diarrheal disease. This challenge can be more pronounced in some areas leaving children who have received several doses still vulnerable to polio attack. The development of viral genetic sequencing technology reveals that OPV viruses are capable of regaining fitness and neurovirulence when continuously transmitted from one person to the other. Based on the information of genetic attenuation, it is imperative that true elimination of polio means zero transmission of poliovirus .It is notable that vaccine viruses apart from being genetically prone to reversal to neurovirulence, are also epidemiologically prone to transmission to unvaccinated children thus causing polio outbreaks. To reduce the cost of the administration of IPV, it is

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Hippa and Information Technology Essay Example for Free

Hippa and Information Technology Essay In this checkpoint I will be discussing certain questions that involve HIPPA and information technology. With technology growing every single day, there are questions that are always involved when dealing with medical record issues. One question would be what advantages could a standardized medical records database offer? What HIPPA issues could arise? And why do you believe technology in the medical records management industry is so far behind other industries? These are the questions I will be answering in this checkpoint. I will start off by talking about the advantages a medical records database could offer. The main advantage of a standardized medical records database would be the convenience. To be able to locate a file with the push of a button would make work for the staff a lot faster. With paper documents it could take hours for another physician or hospital to obtain the information they would need. Another advantage would be the time it would take for a person to travel to and from their physician office to obtain their records for another facility. What HIPPA issues could arise? The main issue when dealing with medical records being online would be their patient’s information staying safe. In these days too many people are able to access sites and databases that should be secure. With people being able to hack and steal identities, this is a major problem when it comes to HIPPA issues. Another issue that could arise would be a patient not signing the forms to allow information to be posted. If a patient does not sign their name, their information should not be put online or given to any other individual. Who do you believe technology in the medical records management industry is so far behind other industries? I believe that the medical record management industry is behind others is because of security. The information that this industry deals with is very sensitive and should be protected at all costs. There are several laws that are in place to insure the protection of the patients and if any of their information were to be leaked, the facility would be in a position for legal action.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Marketing Analysis Of Singapore Airlines

Marketing Analysis Of Singapore Airlines The airline industry is one of the fast growing industries in the world irrespective of its criticism. The genesis of aviation in 1909 was by the Wright brothers who flew their first successful flight in Kitty Hawk. Due to the risk involved, numbers of people did not consider travelling by air not until the 1900s. Another breakthrough was that of Charles Lindbergh who flew and completed a journey across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927. The United States postal service as well contributed to the aviation/airline growth. Kelly Airmail Act allowed transport mails from one destination to another in 1925. There was a major issue with increase in air collision which brought about an Act by the Federal Aviation Administration in 1958. Another discouraging issue was the increase in the price of fuel in the 1970s. During the early 1980s there another deregulation was introduced which brought about mergers of large carriers and growth of smaller ones. In the early 1990s, peoples confidence returned and there was an increase in the number of passengers due to price cut and cities served by airline were increased.   Singapore Airline Singapore airline along with its subsidiaries is basically engaged in passenger and cargo air transportation, engineering services, airport terminal services; they are also involved in training their staffs, tour wholesaling and other activities. Singapore airline operates in the Eastern part of Asia with about 30,088 staffs as on March 31, 2008 according to market research. The revenue recorded by the company was $15,975.5 million during the financial year ended march 2008 which yield an increase of 10.2% compared to 2007. The operating profit of the company was $2,124.5 million in 20008 with a decrease of 3.8% compared to 2007. INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES MISSION STATEMENT: In some organization just like Singapore airline, the vision and objectives and the master plan in order to achieve all achievable is referred to as innovative strategic plan. Innovative strategic planning is a management process which simply can be identified as taking inputs and transforming it as output. The input can be defined as information which is understood by the organization, its environment and its management. The transformation of the information is referred to as the innovative strategic planning and lastly, the output is the defined innovation. According to the mission statement of Singapore airline, it addresses the organizations basic goal i.e. the kind of business they are into. The purpose of the organization was clearly defined and stated which comprises of the potential activities the company is engaged in. The mission statement of Singapore airline is to provide air transportation services of the highest quality and to maximise returns for the benefit of its shareholders and employers. Pillay, J. (1989) Nature of innovation of Singapore airline Clarity and commitment: the quality services to customers are clearly stated and it is companys fundamental objective and aspiration which has made them provide a world-class customer service due to their commitment. Continuous training: in order to meet up with customer needs and challenges, Singapore airline set up training centres for their staffs thereby offering a wide range of educational programs. Career development: there is every opportunity to learn and grow in the company, senior managers are allowed to develop as well Internal communication: Singapore airline employed people from different cultural background to work together in achieving the goal and objectives of the company. In order to maintain good and healthy communication. Singapore airline published departmental newsletters and magazines whereby creating regular dialog between management and staffs. Consistent external communications: when there is a new development in the company and needs to be advertised, the Singapore airline girls are always featured which is the brand identity of the company Connection with customers: several medium is being employed to communicate and carry customers along such as in-flight surveys, reply to compliments and complaints received, sending messages to flyers of offers and privileges which includes additional baggage allowance, priority seating and more. Benchmarking: keeping an open eye for improvement and new ways or strategic means of satisfying customers by following the steps of banks, hotels and retail outlets growth. Improvement, investment innovation: Singapore airline came about a different way of doing things by introducing free drinks and headsets, fax machines on board, individual video screens and telephones in every seat, leading edge gaming and in-flight entertainment. Rewards and recognition: Excellent staffs are being rewarded for their performance and selfless acts of service. Professionalism, pride and profits: Singapore airline has been able to achieve a remarkable result due to staff commitment to the airline and to customers. The airlines reputation is being protected by the staffs as well. Chan, D. (2000) Wirtz, J., Johnston, R. (2003) SNAP SHOT OF SINGAPORE AIRLINE From Comfort ability FIRST HAND DATA Through the means of email and telephone interview, I was able to collect the following first hand data directly from the public affairs department in Singapore from the 5th to the 9th of September 2009. Question 1: Since its establishment, Singapore Airlines has earned a reputation as an innovative market leader, combining quality products with excellent service. In brevity, please explain the history of Singapore airline since its early days from 1947 till date? Answer: A Brief History The Early Days Singapore Airlines history can be traced back to 1st May 1947, when a Malayan Airways Limited (MAL) Airspeed Consul took off from Singapore Kallang Airport on the first of three scheduled flights a week to Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Penang. Over the next five years, larger capacity DC-3 aircraft were introduced. This meant faster and more comfortable flights, and the extension of services further afield to destinations in Indonesia, Vietnam, Burma (now Myanmar), North Borneo (Sabah) and Sarawak. Inflight refreshments improved from the original thermos flask of iced water to sandwiches, biscuits and cold cuts plus a choice of hot and cold drinks, and alcoholic beverages served by a lone hostess. Known as female pursers, these hostesses are the forerunners of todays Singapore Girl. The 1950s 1960s More new aircraft were added to the fleet in the 1950s and 1960s, the period leading up to the jet age. Among these were the DC-4 Skymaster, Vickers Viscount, Lockheed Super Constellation, Bristol Britannia, Comet IV and Fokker F27. On 16 September 1963, the Federation of Malaysia was born and the Airline became known as Malaysian Airways Limited. In May 1966, it became Malaysia-Singapore Airlines (MSA). In 1968, for the first time, annual revenue hit S$100 million. The sarong kebaya uniform for air hostesses, designed by French couturier Pierre Balmain, was introduced and three B707s were added to the fleet. The Airlines Boeing age began in 1969 with the purchase of five B737-100s. The 1970s The 1970s got underway with a bang: on 2nd June 1971, MSAs first transcontinental flight took off for London. In 1972, MSA split up to become two new entities Singapore Airlines and Malaysian Airline System (MAS). The rest of the decade was devoted to growth and consolidation of the newly-established Singapore Airlines. The fleet was expanded to include B747s, B727s and DC10s. To provide more efficient ground services at Paya Lebar Airport, a subsidiary company, Singapore Airport Terminal Services (SATS) was set up. A B747 hangar and airfreight terminal was opened in 1977. The 1980s The move to the new Singapore Changi Airport from Paya Lebar on 1st July 1981 was a big event. Two years later, Airline House, Singapore Airlines corporate headquarters in the Changi Airfreight Centre, was officially opened. The first Singapore Airlines A300 Superbus went into service in February 1981 and the first B747-300 in May 1983. The first B757 and the first A310-200 arrived in November 1984. In 1989, Singapore Airlines became the first airline to operate a B747-400 on a commercial flight across the Pacific. Tradewinds, a Singapore Airlines subsidiary, became Singapores second airline in February 1989. It has since been renamed SilkAir and has an established network of 29 destinations in the region. The 1990s Singapore Airlines commenced operations from the new Terminal 2 at Singapore Changi Airport on 22 November 1990, with the arrival of SQ23 from Amsterdam. In September 1998, Singapore Airlines set new standards in air travel by unveiling a new suite of product and services worth S$500 million across all three classes of travel, offering customers enhanced standards of service on the ground and new levels of comfort, cuisine and entertainment in the air. In 1999, Singapore Airlines launched KrisFlyer, its first proprietary frequent flyer programme, which allows First, Business and Economy Class customers to earn mileage credits. The 2000s In February 2004, Singapore Airlines inaugurated its first Airbus 340-500 by setting a record for operating the worlds longest non-stop commercial flight from Singapore to Los Angeles. The Airline bettered the record barely half a year later, in July 2004, when it launched the non-stop Singapore to New York (Newark) flight. Singapore Airlines currently operates 77 Boeing 777s, consisting of 12 B777-300s, 19 B777-300ERs , 31 B777-200s and 15 B777-200ERs. In October 2006, Singapore Airlines launched a comprehensive suite of new generation cabin products comprising the worlds widest First and Business Class full-flat seat products, a new Economy Class seat, and the next generation of KrisWorld inflight entertainment system. On 15 October 2007, Singapore Airlines took delivery of the worlds first A380 at the Airbus Headquarters in Toulouse. Singapore Airlines was the first airline to operate out of Changi Airport Terminal 3 in January 2008. The Airline currently operates out of both the new terminal and Terminal 2. In May 2008, Singapore Airlines created history again by being the first carrier to operate an all-Business Class service between Asia and the USA with its launch of all-Business class non-stop flights from Singapore to New York (Newark). Three months later, in August 2008, the Airline introduced this all-Business Class non-stop service to Los Angeles. On 21 January 2009, Singapore Airlines received the first of 19 new A330-300 aircraft in Toulouse, France. The aircraft is configured in a two class layout, with 30 new Business Class seats, and 255 Economy Class seats. The planes currently serve the regional and medium-haul routes between Singapore and cities in Australia (Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth) and Japan (Nagoya). The Airline will commence daily A330-300 services to Osaka in early 2010. Public Affairs Department Singapore Airlines Ltd (2009) Question 2: What are your innovative strategies in terms of your products and services? Answer: Product and Service Excellence Excellence in customer service has been integral to Singapore Airlines success. Superb in-flight service is the cornerstone of its reputation for customer service and hospitality. Singapore Airlines has also developed a reputation as an industry trendsetter. The list of industry-leading innovations by Singapore Airlines includes: First to offer free headsets, a choice of meals and free drinks in Economy Class, in the 1970s First to fly non-stop from London to Singapore in 1984, and the first to fly non-stop from Singapore to London in 1989 First to fly non-stop across the Pacific between Hong Kong and San Francisco in 1989 First to introduce satellite-based in-flight telephones in 1991 First to introduce KrisWorld, a state-of-the-art inflight entertainment and communications system across all three classes in 1995 First to involve a comprehensive panel of world-renowned chefs, the International Culinary Panel, in developing inflight meals in 1998 First to bring high quality theatre-style surround sound to inflight movie viewing in all three classes with Dolby Technologies in 1999 First to offer audio and video on demand (AVOD) capabilities on KrisWorld in all classes in October 2001 First to operate the worlds longest non-stop commercial flight between Singapore and Los Angeles in February 2004 on the A340-500, and then surpassing the record (in terms of distance) later that year with the non-stop service to New York (Newark) in June 2004 First to introduce the Berlitz ® World Traveler interactive language learning programme on all A340-500 aircraft in July 2004 First in the world to launch the next generation KrisWorld inflight entertainment system on Panasonic Avionics Corporations eX2à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢ platform in October 2006 First to fly the A380 from Singapore to Sydney on 25 October 2007. Public Affairs Department Singapore Airlines Ltd (2009). Question 3: Globally, what impact has the company made so far in respect to innovative ideas? Answer: Global Network The Singapore Airlines route network extends across 98 destinations in 40 countries, including those served by Singapore Airlines Cargo and the regional airline subsidiary, SilkAir. On 1st April 2000, Singapore Airlines joined the Star Alliance network as part of its globalization strategy and continual commitment to offer its customers improved services and benefits, including seamless air travel worldwide. Modern Fleet Singapore Airlines fleet today comprises A380-800s, A340-500s, A330-300s, B747-400s, B777-300s, B777-300ERs, B777-200s and B777-200ERs. It is the result of a series of large orders made in the 1990s, as part of an ambitious fleet renewal and expansion strategy. The orders included a US$10.3 billion order for 22 B747-400s and 30 A340-300s in 1994, a US$12.7 billion order for 77 B777s in 1995 and a US$2.2 billion order for 10 A340-500s in 1998. Singapore Airlines reinforced its commitment to fleet upgrading and expansion by placing a series of orders for a range of new generation aircraft in recent years, including: 25 Airbus A380-800 (10 in fleet, 9 on firm order and 6 on option) 40 Airbus A350 XWB-900 (20 firm and 20 on option) 40 Boeing 787-9 (20 firm and 20 on purchase rights) 19 Boeing 777-300 Extended Range (all in fleet) Singapore Airlines became the first in the world to take delivery and fly the super-jumbo A380-800 aircraft in October 2007. Singapore Airlines has one of the youngest fleets of any major airline, with an average age of 6 years and one month as at 1 September 2009. Singapore Airlines Cargo, a wholly-owned subsidiary, operates a fleet of 12 B747-400 Freighters. SilkAir, also a wholly-owned subsidiary, operates a fleet of 16 aircraft, including ten Airbus A320-200s and six Airbus A319-100s. Public Affairs Department Singapore Airlines Ltd (2009). Question 4: Without leaving out the financial aspect of it, what were your innovative ideas in terms of management of funds? Answer: Financial Strength Prudent management has helped Singapore Airlines maintain a healthy financial position and return a profit in every year of its operation. For the financial year ended 31 March 2009, the Singapore Airlines Group recorded an operating profit of S$1,062 million. Public Affairs Department Singapore Airlines Ltd (2009) Question 5: How many subsidiaries does the company have and how has it helped with the growth of the company? Answer: Subsidiaries The Singapore Airlines Group has over 20 subsidiaries, covering a range of airline-related services from cargo to engine overhaul. The philosophy of investing in overseas joint ventures is the driving force behind Singapore Airlines development into a global group of aviation-related companies. The Singapore Airlines Group will continue to invest in related businesses, rather than seek to diversify outside of the aviation industry. Public Affairs Department Singapore Airlines Ltd (2009) Question6: How many staffs do you have at present? Answer: Human Resource The Singapore Airlines Groups staff strength as at 31 August 2009 was 29, 965 of which 14,054 were employed by the Airline. Public Affairs Department Singapore Airlines Ltd (2009) Question 7: In what other areas have you made impact? Answer: Corporate Citizenship Singapore Airlines recognizes the importance of building strong relationships, not only with its customers and business partners, but also with the many communities it serves. Through corporate donations, sponsorships and other forms of support, Singapore Airlines provides backing to a wide range of community groups including charities, educational institutions, and arts and sports events. Issued by Public Affairs Department Singapore Airlines Ltd to John Odewole.5th-9th September 2009) Information systems The main kinds of information systems that brings about innovation are as follows; Executive support system Management information system Decision support system Knowledge management system Transaction processing system Office automation system Operational level system An operational level system is managed by the operational managers to support them by keeping the track of elementary activities and transactions of the organisation by the use of transaction processing system. The flow of transaction is tracked at this level such as sales, receipts, cash, deposits, payroll, credit decision and flow of materials. Major function of this level includes sales management, scheduling, budgeting and personnel records. Training and development is one of the tools responsible to the success of SIA, therefore new ideas are needed to enhance this. Operational level involves sales and marketing, manufacturing, finance which is the backbone of the company, accounting and human resources. All these should be carried out accurately and effectively for proper running of the company. For the company to function well, a basic routine of transaction necessary must be carried out. At this level, the goals of the company, task, and recourses are predefined and structured intelligently. Beardwell, I., Holden, L. Claydon, T Knowledge level system The knowledge level is to help the organisation in discovering, organising, and to integrate new and existing knowledge in to the business. Controlling the flow of paper work should be employed in this level as well. A classical planning system in terms of models of problem solving should be carried out properly and accurately. A high level of information system design is needed at this level. In the knowledge level, a biometric system can be employed in order to monitor the staffs attendance and for security purpose. This system would reduce the level of insecurity and intruders or unauthorised access into the company. The use of SAP (system Anwendungen und produkte) can be employed in Singapore airline to manage the system at the operational level. SAP is system software used to manage the system database. Its efficiency and accuracy make it outstanding among other system software. Management level system The purpose of management level is to monitor and control, decision making, and administrative activities by middle managers. The management level is the decision support system unit where management information system should be used to carry out sales management, inventory control, annual budgeting and relocation analysis. is4 (By Lachlan Mackinnin and Phil Trinder) The management should be able to analyse regional sales, schedule production in such a way that time and cost of production will be will be managed by telling the production facility what to make with which staff, and on which equipment. This is done by using production scheduling tools. An inventory control system can be used, which is integrated package of software and hardware used in controlling the companys stock. The management level of SIA should be able to analyse cost quantitatively in order to decide whether to follow a course of action or not. In terms of pricing or profitability, the management should be able to conduct a proper profitability analysis in order to provide invaluable evidence concerning the earning potential of the company. Innovative system This level is being managed by senior managers to tackle and address strategic issues and long term trends. Senior managers do not only tackle issues within the organisation, they look into the external environment as well. The senior managers major concern is how to match the capability of the organisation with challenges, changes and opportunities externally. Executive support system is used at the strategic level by senior managers to carry out sales trend forecasting, operating plan, budget forecasting and manpower planning. is7 Inter-relationship between IS types (by Lachlan Mackinnin and Phil Trinder) Using information systems to facilitate customer relations of Singapore airline Information systems can be used to facilitate customer relations through the following means or medium: Functional support role To record and store customer market data, customer profiles, customer purchase history, marketing research data, and other useful marketing records. Marketing records are used for advertising, marketing plans and sales activities. Helps to record competitors activities data, industry data, intelligence data and strategic market records. In implementing, controlling, monitoring plans, strategies, tactics, new products and new business models as well as new customers. Decision support role Decision making is determined by asking what if Questions such as: what if we decrease the price of flight 5% will that increase our sales? What if we increase it by 2% will it decrease or increase sales? Or rather discourage customers, what if we decrease by 2% then increase by 3%? And so on. Strategic support role Core competence: sustainable competitive advantage which gives the company (SIA) long term advantage in the market place. Piloting the chain of internal values which helps to reduce costs and manage performance Rapid speed of change in information and technology helps in competitive aspect which serves as an advantage to the company. Performance monitoring role Help to establish relevant and measurable objectives Helps in monitoring results and performance Helps to send or to alert managers at each levels of the organisation. Benefits of a good customer relation management A good customer relation management helps to provide an excellent customer service in such a way that customers are satisfied and retained. Examples of this is providing a rapid response to queries, fast delivery, providing solutions to customer needs/ meeting customer needs and warm customer service that cannot be found elsewhere. Using customer information to optimise/ prioritize products/ goods and services and design as well as marketing strategy. Knowing your customers and then focusing on them in terms of provision of services. Building a long term relationship with the customers and conducting interaction with customer in order to know more about their needs. Reasons for CRM To be able to compete at a higher level with other competitors Unequivocal of customer economic retention With the help of technology, Singapore airline will be able to do so effectively and profitably. By doing the above, Singapore airline will definitely acquire and retain as much customers as possible and possibly enhance profits for the company. Ethical issues The principle of right and wrong: Ethical issue is concerned the choices that people make. Ethical issue can be classified under two categories such as: The fundamental morality of behaviour: this type of issue, as well known as deontologist refers to the basic and unarguable instances of right and wrong. Therefore this medium must not be used to mislead or differentiate. The consequences of behaviour: known as teleological, this refers to social effect of behaviour. The ethical issues Singapore airline might be encountering are: The innovative strategies used by corporate employees to maximise their frequent fliers benefits such as games which can be stored by frequent fliers. Breach in individual right Inconsistence in code of conduct of the company Unlawful distribution or exposition of customer details The consequences of this action on the society References Beardwell, I., Holden, L. Claydon, T. (2004) Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Approach 4th edition, FT Prentice Hall, London UK. Chan, D. (2000) The story of Singapore Airlines and the Singapore Girl, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 19. David, M. Smeeding T. (1985) Introduction, in David, M. Smeeding, T. (eds) Horizontal Equity, Uncertainty, and Economic Well-Being, National Bureau of Economic Research, Studies in Income and Wealth, Vol. 50. Hoovers (2006) Singapore Airlines Limited, available from: . 5th September 2009. Jacques, C. (1962) Objective Measures for Pay Differentials, Harvard Business Review, January-February Pillay, J. (1989) Singapore Airlines (A), USA, Harvard Business School Press. Thompson, A., Gamble, A.J. Strickland, J.E. (2005) Strategy, Winning in the Market Place 2nd International Edition, New York USA, McGraw Hill. Walker, K.W. (1992) Human Resource Strategy, McGraw-Hill, New York USA. Wirtz, J., Johnston, R. (2003), Singapore Airlines: what it takes to sustain service excellence a senior management perspective, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 13 No.1 15th September 2009 15th September 2009 Public Affairs Department Singapore Airlines Ltd 5th-9th September 2009.