Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Offshore Oil Drilling - 2928 Words

Doesn’t everyone love swimming in the ocean and seeing all the pretty sea life? Some people do, and when people are offshore drilling they can cause a lot of problems if something goes wrong. The biggest concern by environmentalist is not a spill, but the pollution of the air and water, damage to the ocean bottom and debris that washes ashore from day-to-day operations of oil and gas rigs. Oil Drilling can lead to jobs being endangered, animals dying, and damaging the eco system. So many animals are dying because of the oil in the water. Proofread to- Government wildlife experts have found just in Alaska that the BP oil spill has threatened more than 400 species including 34,000 birds, 656 sea turtles and 12 dolphins, and this count was†¦show more content†¦Exposure to petroleum causes tissue damage in the eyes, mouth, skin and lungs of marine mammals. Because they are at the top of the food chain, many marine mammals will be exposed to the dangers of bioaccumulation of organic pollutants and metals. Expansion of offshore drilling activities would further threaten imperiled species like the manatee. Sea Turtles often nest on beaches. Collisions and noise disruptions are all potential threats to sea turtles. Hatchlings are also particularly susceptible to oiling because they spend much of their time near the water surface, where spilled oil or tar accumulates. (Boesch, DF and N.N. Rabalais (eds.) 2010.) Do to the oil spill U.S. wildlife experts are preparing to collect tens of thousands of endangered sea turtle eggs and move them hundreds of miles away in an unprecedented bid to protect them from the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Offshore oil drilling causes many changes to our climate change. It thickens the ocean and that makes it even harder for sea life animals to live in, and also for people to swim in. Also, when there is an oil spill fishermen cannot sail through it because of the possibility of the crude oil catching fire. The U.S. needs to look for ways to decrease petroleum consumption, not for ways to increase it. Offshore oil production involves environmental risks, most notably oil spills from oil tankers or pipelines transporting oil from the platform to onshore facilities, and from leaksShow MoreRelatedOffshore Oil Drilling2562 Words   |  11 PagesOffshore Oil Drilling 1 The Time Has Come For More Offshore Oil Drilling [pic] Figure 1 shows what a typical offshore oil rig looks like. Bryce D. Cates EPD 155 Sec 3 â€Å"Research Project† April 15, 2010 Offshore Oil Drilling 2 To: Paul Ross From: Bryce D. Cates Date: April 15, 2010 Subject: Cover Memo What do we do to obtain oil to meet the needs of Americans without havingRead MoreBenefits Of Offshore Oil Drilling1062 Words   |  5 PagesOffshore oil drilling is a big contribution to obtaining oil for the U.S., but it is also a big controversy to continue offshore drilling or to stop the drilling. most of the world’s energy comes from the use of oil, even though there are other resources to use oil is the most commonly used, But there is a shortage in oil especially in the U.S. so they suggest drilling for oil in the ocean to reach unexplored oil wells. There are benefits in offshore oil drilling such as jobs, domestic fuel, andRead MoreOffshore Oil Drilling On The Environment1474 Words   |  6 PagesOffshore Oil Drilling â€Å"If we do nothing, it doesn t matter how we feel. And that’s exactly what oil companies are banking on: out of sight, out of mind† (Hart, 24). Petroleum is a naturally occurring oil found under deep layers of rock (â€Å"oil drilling†). Oil drilling is when a pipe penetrates through these several layers of rock in order to reach the petroleum oil underneath. This oil can then be purified or turned into gasoline for energy use. Offshore oil drilling, like its’ name describes, isRead MoreThe Disadvantages Of Oil Drilling Offshore2181 Words   |  9 Pages The Disadvantages of Oil Drilling In Environmentally Sensitive Areas In The United States Oil drilling in environmentally sensitive areas in the United States had been an ongoing controversial problem for a very long time. There are so many opinions along with outlooks on the present topic. Many people are against oil drilling offshore because of the issues that it creates. However, there are many critics that agree with drilling in environmentally sensitive areas because they do not worry aboutRead MoreThe Current Regulations On Offshore Oil Drilling1456 Words   |  6 PagesThe current regulations on offshore oil drilling are too restrictive and do not effectively allow the use of our free market. For the free market to work as intended, it must be unregulated. Adam smith, who is widely considered the father of capitalism once stated â€Å"He, generally, indeed, neither intends to promote the public interests, nor knows how much he is promoting it. By directing that industry in such a manner as its produce maybe of greatest value, he intends only his own gain, andRead MoreOil Spills Caused By Offshore Drilling Essay1390 Words   |  6 PagesOils spills caused by offshore drilling in California (Santa Barbara) Introduction: This paper is about the effects of offshore drilling particularly it discusses â€Å"oil spills caused by offshore drilling in California†. These oil spills that are caused by offshore drilling affect the environment in the long run. Even some of these impacts on the environment by oil spills last for decades (Larry West). For example when an oil slick arrives at the beach from a huge oil spill then it sticks to eachRead MoreEnvironmental Consequences Of Offshore Oil Drilling1991 Words   |  8 PagesOffshore oil drilling is a controversial topic because when oil spills, it does extensive amounts of damage to the environment. Countries capable of mining oil in the ocean reap the economic benefits in addition to reducing their dependency on external oil. While it is uncontroversial that offshore drilling is a massive boon for those countries, the environmental consequences of a spill also affect the economic welfare of nearby residents. Oil contaminates animals through a pr ocess called biomagnificationRead MoreThe Debate Over Offshore Oil Drilling to Meed Americas Oil Needs1824 Words   |  8 Pagesof dependence on foreign oil, and one valid solution to this problem is offshore oil drilling and production. America’s economy is heavily based on petroleum, as though it is the nation’s blood; a necessity for survival. About 25% of oil produced in the U.S. comes from offshore rigs. Most of the U.S. coastline has been off limits for oil drilling since the early 1980s. Due to environmental concerns after an oil spill off the coast of California in 1969, an offshore drilling moratorium was imposed.Read MoreOffshore Oil Drilling and the Deepwater Horizon Spill of the Gulf of Mexico1591 Words   |  7 PagesOil is a very important fossil fuel that is used for various sources of energy. Oil supplies power to industries, fuel for transportation, heat for buildings, and provides raw material for plastics, paints, textiles, and other materials (hyb rid cars). To access this fossil fuel, oil drilling is used. Land-based oil drilling became less productive and as the global stipulation for energy increased, technology, law, and geology impacts stepped in and pushed the exploration of oil away from shores (CITE)Read MoreOffshore Drilling Is An Essential Part Of Today s Oil3024 Words   |  13 PagesOffshore drilling has become an essential part of today’s oil production and demand for energy. With the growth of population comes the increasing demand for oil. The oil industry today, is one of the most used providers of energy. Today in the 20th century the majority of the population in America has a car and cars needs gas to run. The oil reserves in the earth that are easily accessible via land are starting to run dry and are becoming harder to find. This is why we have begun to see more and

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

The Correlation Between Mental Illness And Crime Essay

In recent years, there has been a higher prevalence of articles in the media in relation to mental illness and crime. This is due to a higher focus of research in the past half-century by criminal psychologists into the relationship between mental illness and violence. A conclusion has then come of this research that people with mental health problems are at increased risk of violent offending. This is determined through classification and misclassification of mental illness and clinical aspects of violence. However, there are also seen to be additional factors and trends that impact a person with mental illness’s likelihood of becoming a violent offender. As mentioned by Howitt (2015), a mental illness can be defined as ‘a variety of psychological conditions in which there is a characteristic disabling and distressing impairment in some aspect of the psychological functioning of the individual.’ However, not all mental illnesses are found to be at risk of violent offending. Such illnesses as anxiety and depression are found to be less violent than mental health problems such as bipolar and schizophrenia, both of which will be included in the subset of mental health problems recognised as violent for the purpose of this essay. The relationship that has been identified between mental illness and crime has the ability to be misconceived through misclassification of violent mentally ill offenders and a variety of factors which have the ability to cloud the evidence of theShow MoreRelated Correlation Between Mental Illness and Violence and Crime Essay2291 Words   |  10 Pagesthe Correlation between Mental Illness and Viole nce and Crime Over the past few decades, many researches have strived to test and explain the correlation between violence and crime and mental illness. Moore and Hiday (2006) assert that up 22% of inmates has a mental illness, sometimes containing more mental illness patients than many psychiatric units. Due to these statistics it is evident how important it is to understand the causes of the correlations between crime and violence and mental disordersRead MoreMental Illness and Violent Crime1184 Words   |  5 PagesThe stereotype that goes hand in hand with mental illness that though seems to have improved over the years is still pervasive. Teplin, Abram McClelland (1994) state that people in general, believe that people with mental illness are more likely to commit violent crime with those without mental illness. In their study they seek to find evidence to that statement – to learn if having a mental illness increases the likeliness of violent crime and recidivism after release fro m prison. This authorRead MoreAntisocial Persoanlity Disorder1398 Words   |  6 Pagesapproximately 40-70% of children diagnosed with conduct disorder will develop ASPD as adults. If effective treatment and intervention options could be determined for individuals with ASPD, it would greatly decrease the amount of people who commit crimes and are incarcerated. It could also prevent some of these children from obtaining arrest records. Another study determined that 2.8% of the prison population in Dublin, Ireland exhibit psychotic symptoms (McInerney, C., Davoren, M., Flynn, G., MullinsRead MoreAre People With Mental Illness Dangerous?796 Words   |  4 PagesWe hear on the news about how a person has committed a homicide, or even a treacherous crime. The first thing that pops into ones head is something has to be wrong with that person, but really there isnt anything wrong with them at all. So, are mentally ill people also criminals? Studies suggest that there is no correlation between mental illness and crime. Why do we as people tend to think that mentally disorder people are so dangerous? According to a recent survey that was conducted. AboutRead MoreOut-Of-State Hypothesis937 Words   |  4 Pagesschool away from home are more likely to experience mental, physical, and social issues when compared to those of in-state students. This is likely attributed to a wide array of factors including regional/cultural differences, social pressures put on incoming students, and the impact of being a first year student with new responsibilities. The research conducted should show that students who are out-of-state experience some significant strain on mental, social, and physical health. Such results wouldRead MoreWhat Does Columbine, Sandy Hook, And Virginia Tech All Have?1377 Words   |  6 PagesNewtown: Every Day is a Painful Reminder What does Columbine, Sandy Hook, and Virginia Tech all have in common? These were all gruesome crimes committed within the last decade, by people under the age of 23. According to Smith, â€Å"These serious acts of violence are exceedingly rare, but the notoriety attracted by these events raise wide-range concerns† (287). A more pervasive problem is the increase of ‘relatively low-level’ aggression displayed every day in our schools (Smith 287). These behaviorsRead MoreThe Cost Of Not Caring For Those With Mental Illness1498 Words   |  6 PagesCaring for those with Mental Illness Mental health issues are on the rise, especially among the youth, 6 out of 10 young people do not receive mental health treatment for major depression. Currently, there are over 40 million Americans are dealing with a mental health issue and 56 percent of them are not receiving proper treatment. (mentalhealthAmerica). In addition, 33 percent of all homeless individuals have a mental illness and do not receive treatment. With the rise of mental health issues, theRead MoreThe Shutdown Of Public Mental Health1614 Words   |  7 PagesIn recent years, evidence and studies have proven that the shutdown of various mental health facilities across the nation has caused a dramatic increase in the number of incarcerations for people who suffer from mental illness. In 2006, the Bureau of Justice Statistics calculated that there were approximately 705,600 mentally ill adults incarcerated in state prisons, 78,800 mentally ill adults incarcerated in federal prisons, and 479,900 mentally ill adul ts incarcerated in local jails (â€Å"MentallyRead MoreMental Illness And Its Effects On The Media Essay1324 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Mental illness is often wrongly portrayed in the United States’ media creating stigmatization and misrepresentation. Mental illness â€Å"refers to a wide range of mental disorders that affect your mood, thinking and behavior† (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2015). Examples of disorders include anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Any â€Å"negative attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors are called stigma† (Wilson et al., 2016, p. 2) and stigma can contributeRead MoreEssay about Medicating Mental Illnesses1142 Words   |  5 Pages450 million people in the world currently are suffering from a mental illness, many untreated, the topic still remains taboo in modern society (Mental Health). For years, people with mental illnesses have been shut away or institutionalized, and despite cultural progression in many areas, mental illnesses are still shamed and rarely brought to light outside of the psychiatric community. The many diff erent forms in which mental illness can occur are incredibly prevalent in the world today, and there

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Carlos Santana Essay Example For Students

Carlos Santana Essay Carlos SantanaCarlos Santana naci en 20 de julio, 1947, en Autln de Navarro, Mexico. En 1955, la familia se movi de Autln de Navarro para Tijuana. Como un adolescente, Santana realizada en tira Tijuana forma un club. En los inicios de 1960s, Santana se movi otra vez con su familia para San Francisco, donde su padre esper encontrar trabajo. En San Francisco, despus de que varios aos gastaron hacer las veces de un lavaplatos y tocar en las calles, Santana resolvi convertirse en un msico profesional. En 1966, l forj a la Santana Blues Band con amigos y artistas callegeros David Brown y Gregg Rolie.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

School Leadership

Introduction In today’s era of heightened expectations, school leaders are in the hot seat to ensure effective and excellent educational outcomes. The multi-levelled pedagogic school leaders highly determine the mode of teaching students in schools and the effective application of the learning process.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on School Leadership specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Not only are they curriculum leaders but they are also educational futurists, disciplinarians, instructors, assessors, analysts, field experts and society builders (Davies 2005). They are involved in the core running of the school and act as a go-between in case of any arising conflicts between the parents, students, teachers, education participants such as unions and the society itself. This requires them to not only be sensitive when meeting student’s demands and needs but to also be critical thinkers so as to deliver valid judgments based on logic. School leadership is currently a complex concept with most leaders failing to balance their roles. It is evident that they are heavily inclined towards school management and accountability hence disregarding the effective mode of impacting knowledge to students to ensure quality teaching and learning. The outcome greatly reflects the quality of the school leaders’ pedagogy and their ability to give credible teaching instructions to improve learning in schools. Teachers need to have adequate knowledge of how to teach students and be able to implement and design the school curriculum. The following paper will therefore discuss the current change in pedagogical and instructional roles that seem to create imbalance in their competing roles and how the same can be reclaimed. School Leadership Previous studies have attempted to define the concepts, models and practises that characterise the effect of leadership in educational outcomes. Several conte mporary leadership theories have come up as a result. According to Davies and Ellison (2001), the distributional and transformational leadership theories are examples of such theories.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These two theories have been discussed by many scholars in an attempt to draw an understanding on the nature of school leadership and how it affects learning and teaching in schools. They also create a link between the leaders and the teachers themselves with an attempt of establishing the student outcomes that is derived from this relationship. Though the study on effective leadership based on this theories have not been concluded, it is evident that school leaders have a big role to play. Student performance is therefore attributed to the influence impacted through effective leadership. Successful school leaders give support and knowledgeable instructions to the teacher s, a practise that develops their inner intellectual powers. In addition, they also implement an effective organisation model that helps them strike a balance in their competitive roles. The studies on educational leadership draws a clear conclusion that school leaders requires to be actively involved in the institution’s learning and instructional programs. Principals need to balance the instructional and pedagogical roles together with their managerial roles to ensure exemplary student performance. The main goal in any learning institution is assuring parents and the society in general that their children are receiving quality education. Though managerial and compliance accountability roles play a big role in running a school, student performance should be made the core business, a concept that is ignored by many school leaders. Leadership Crisis In order to discuss how school leaders can become instructional and pedagogical leaders rather than just mere managers, it is imp ortant to look at the challenges facing school leadership. There has been increasing demands for effective schools and the achievement by students is entirely based on the key roles played by school leaders. Leadership challenges have played a big role in the transformation of quality teaching and learning (Duke 2010). The school leaders need to address these challenges as a step of regaining the lost glory. One of the main challenge relate to the leadership styles adopted by the leaders.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on School Leadership specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most school leaders lead through manipulation that tends to intimidate teachers. A research conducted indicates that 80% of school management is characterised by dictatorial leadership (Duke 2010). This can be due to various reasons such as nepotism or favouritism by the leader. Dictatorial leadership can also be applied in instances where the le ader is involved in unscrupulous dealings and is afraid of being exposed by a certain teacher. In such cases, the dictatorial management style instils fear in such teachers who steer away from the leader’s affairs. This challenge begets teachers who in turn fail to perform in their role of impacting knowledge to students. The other challenge is the limited capacity by school leaders to qualify as effective leaders. There has been an increase in unqualified selection of leaders due to the lenient selection process. The mode of screening, selection and admitting the leaders have been ill-defined and lacking in its application. As a result, most school leaders are easily admitted based on their academic background only and not their knowledge experiences or skill disposition required to making an effective leader. In addition, there are inadequate training programs for principals. The training is important to upgrade their competence and qualification to effectively run a school . Lack of dialogue between leaders and other participants in decision making is also a leadership crisis that has led to a decline in students’ performances. Such leaders fail to take criticism from teachers, students or even the society itself positively. This leads to such leaders applying the direct approach instead of a facilitative approach while making their decisions. This approach is bureaucratic in nature and tends to leave out important factors that can result to a disastrous decision. The other challenge worth noting is the lack of ownership in the mission and vision statements of the school. These statements play a big role in achieving the goals set by the school’s administration. In most schools, leaders have failed to expose the vision and mission to both teachers and students as an inspiration for them to work towards achieving the set goals and objectives. Most school teachers are up in hands to retain their position thus compromising the performance o f students.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Instead of engaging both students and the teachers, they are busy pleasing the school board in a bid to secure their managerial positions and disregarding problems faced by teachers to facilitate effective learning (Grace 1995). The quality of education has declined over the past few years. It is important to note that most of these challenges were not faced twenty ago hence they can be resolved. The challenges not only lead to the leader’s disorientation but also affect the teachers and the students as well. Instructional And Pedagogical Leadership Versus Administrative Leadership An oration by William Walker during a conference held by educational leaders in Australia gives a clear analysis of who qualifies as a pedagogical leader. Delivered by Viviane Robinson, the article seems to focus on educational leadership and their ability to give instructions rather than just being mere managers (Robinson 2007). The roles in this kind of leadership are differentiated from that of a school administrator in various ways. One distinctive role is the mode of discharging their administrative duties. While the administrators apply a rather strict approach, a pedagogical leader has clear set goals that involve all the participants. The latter is more involved in the implementation of the curriculum, monitoring process and evaluation of teachers and allocation of resources to make the program successful. They also encourage team work and transparency as opposed to their counterparts through delegation of powers to their juniors, a tactic that enhances learning growth. Recent definition of an instructional and pedagogical leader by Pont, Nusche and Moorman (2008) has shifted to include teaching and learning. Some of the scholars have further defined this kind of leadership as ‘learning leadership’. The community in such a learning environment uphold team work as the guiding principal. This entails constant meetings by staff members to discuss, reflect an d modify the learning process together as a team. To further avoid any future conflict that may arise, the members are armed with a problem-solving model to come up with a solution. The community creates a learning culture that leads to student’s success. Administrative leaders on the other hand are more attentive to the general running of the school as regards its finances, school projects and other factors affecting the general management of the school. They isolate themselves from the learning and teaching process leaving it entirely to the juniors to device their own curriculum. This leads to teacher’s laxity which in turn leads to a decline in students’ performances (Anderson and Cawsey 2008). Striking a Balance between the Administrative Role and the Pedagogical/Instructional Role For school leaders to be classified as effective leaders, they need to get deeply involved in the learning and teaching process while at the same time managing their administrati ve role. While this seems to be a challenging task, it is possible through application of various workable solutions. While teaching and learning has been termed as the core business in any learning institution, the school’s management needs to be kept running to ensure success in the said core business. Failure to effectively manage one can render the other one futile. Several scholars have proposed some workable models that can help strike a balance between these competing roles hence reclaiming the lost pedagogical and instructional roles of school leaders. This balancing model can be analysed through five strategic dimensions that play a big role in impacting quality knowledge to students. One of the dimensions is through promotion and active participation in teacher learning development. Crowther, Ferguson and Hann (2008) argue that a school leader needs to be actively involved in all activities pertaining to professional and developmental learning. This has proved to ha ve great impact on the student’s performance outcome. The school leader can be involved through formal or informal contexts. Formal context entails organising and participating in staff meetings and formal professional sessions. The informal context requires the school leader to not only initiate team building sessions that bring together all the members of the staff but to actively participate in them too. Team building session helps the members to identify problems that hinder the learning process and to come up with solutions to these problems through rigorous discussions. Scholars have suggested that such leaders who take this initiative begin to develop a focus in the learning and teaching process. They further get to learn their staff and how they operate. This helps the leaders to know the problems that the staff members are likely to face hence helping them with adequate support ranging from teaching resources to coming up with a valid timetable. Lastly, they learn to appreciate all the stages and time-line involved in the transformation process. The dimension not only involves itself in the learning process but also the administration role. The leader learns to involve the members of the staff in matters that affect the general running of the school hence helping to strike a balance between the two competing roles. The other dimension is through planning, evaluation and implementation of teaching curriculum. The school leaders need to be directly involved in the teaching process through regular attendance in classrooms. Recent study has indicated that giving a feedback to the teachers regarding their teaching tactics in class has played a key role in positive student outcomes (Mullen 2007). Such leaders play a vital role in coordinating an effective school curriculum to be used in all the levels. They also work together with staff members to plan, evaluate and implement their teaching curriculum. The curriculum also ensures a monitoring policy that closely follows the progress of student’s performance and evaluating the results in order to enhance future teaching programs. An effective teaching curriculum not only ensures exemplary performance but also help to create a good image of the school’s administration to the society. The image is an indication that the school head has the managerial abilities to run the school’s administration. Another dimension requires the leaders to come up with goals and expectations. This is by establishing an effective and workable vision and mission statement and to own it. The mission and vision statement encompass the goals and expectations set by both teachers and the students. It is therefore important to actively involve them in setting up these learning goals. Though it can be argued that this dimension plays a very minimal role in student outcome, it has significant learning impact to the students and staff by allowing them develop a specific focus. The school l eader is able to give priority to student achievement by ensuring that the goals are met and that the teaching curriculum correlates with the set school objectives. On the other hand, the goals and objectives also oversee the general running of the school by acting as the guiding principles. Strategic resourcing is also another dimension that the leader should actively be involved in. Strategic decisions concerning allocation of resources to aid in the learning and teaching process have an indirect impact in the student performance outcomes. The resources cover the school staffing and provision of teaching materials that facilitate the learning process. What is important is the ability of the leader to secure adequate resources that relates to the pedagogical set goals and objectives. The school leader on the other hand gains an additional skill to allocate resources required in the managerial role as well. The last dimension is to make certain that an orderly and supportive learnin g environment is maintained. School leaders should ensure a safe and caring haven for both its teaching staff and the students. The intervention mode by school heads to ensure such an environment helps to create a balance between the competing roles. Some of the interventions include setting up a standard discipline code, ensuring minimal conflicts that tends to disrupt the learning process and to protect the teaching staff from undue pressure from outside participants such as the parents or the school board. Implications Of The Dimensions The final question that requires to be answered is whether the dimensions play any key role in striking a balance in a leader’s competitive roles so as to ensure quality learning and teaching process. The dimensions seem to create a link between the leaders and other participants involved in the learning process. This creates an implication of team work that helps in solving problems. It further helps to strike a balance by ensuring key eva luation in student performances that effectively embeds positive experiences. The dimensions also include all the key areas in the school environment and serves as a focal point of leadership that ensures flexibility in affecting decisions made by the participants. Conclusion In order for school leaders to strike a balance between being both administrative and instructional/pedagogical leaders, they need first to focus on effective mode of leadership rather than the bureaucratic approach. The school head should then apply the dimensions in order to effectively get involved in the teaching and learning process on one hand and the managerial role on the other. This makes the heads partake the student’s performance as their core business hence meeting the ultimate requirement as an instructional or pedagogical leader. Reference List Anderson, M and Cawsey, C (2008) Learning for leadership: building a school of  Professional practice. Camberwell, Australian Council for Educatio nal Research Press. Crowther, F., Ferguson, M and Hann, L (2008) Developing Teacher Leaders: How  Teacher Leadership Enhances School Success. London, SAGE Publications. Davies, B (2005) The essentials of school leadership. London, Paul Chapman Publishing and Corwin Press. Davies, B and Ellison, L (2001) School leadership for the 21st century. A competency  and knowledge approach. New York, Routledge. Duke, D.L (2010) The Challenges of School District Leadership. New York, Routledge. Grace, R.G (1995) School leadership: beyond education management: an essay in  policy scholarship. Bristol, The Falmer Press. Mullen, C (2007) Curriculum leadership development: a guide for aspiring school  leaders. Sydney, John Wiley Sons Australia Ltd. Pont, B., Nusche, D and Moorman, H (2008) Improving school leadership: Policy and  practice. New Zealand, OECD Publishing. Robinson, V (2007) William Walker Oration: School Leadership and Student Outcomes  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ Identifying What Works and Why. [Online] Available at: This essay on School Leadership was written and submitted by user F1sher to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.